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Table 1 Summary of MSC-based therapies for type 2 diabetes

From: Mesenchymal stem cell therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus

No Stem cell type Randomized placebo-control study Mean dose of injected cells/kg Mode of injection Follow-up period Assessment of beta-cell function Assessment of insulin sensitivity Publication
1. MNCs Intrapancreatic 12 month Fasting C-peptide   Estrada et al. [69]
2. BM-MNCs 3.1 × 106 Intra-pancreatic 6 months Fasting C-peptide, glucagon stimulated c-peptide, HOMA-β HOMA-IR Bhansali et al. [70]
3. BM-MNCs Yes 3.2 × 108 Intra-pancreatic 12 months Fasting C-peptide, glucagon stimulated c-peptide, HOMA-β HOMA-IR Bhansali et al. [71]
4. UC-MSCs 1 × 106 IV + intrapancreatic on day 5 12 months Fasting C-peptide and HOMA-β HOMA-IR Liu et al. [72]
4. BM-MNCs Yes 2.8 × 109 Intra-pancreatic 33 months Mixed meal tolerance test   Hu et al. [73]
6. MNCs (5–7) × 108 IV or pancreatic arterial infusion 6 months Fasting C-peptide, glucagon stimulated c-peptide, HOMA-β HOMA-IR Sood et al. [75]
7. PD-MSCs 1.35 × 106 IV 6 months Fasting C-peptide Fasting insulin Jiang et al. [77]
8. MSCs 1.8 × 106 IV 6 months Fasting C-peptide   Kong et al. [78]
9. BM-MSCs (0.3–2.0) × 106 IV 24 months Fasting C-peptide Fasting insulin Skyler et al. [83]
10. BM-MNCs Yes 3.8 × 109 Pancreatic arterial infusion 12 months Fasting C-peptide and OGTT HOMA-IR Wu et al. [85]
11. BM-MNCs 3.76 × 108 Pancreatic arterial infusion 720 days Mixed meal tolerance test   Wang et al. [86]
12. CB-SC IV 12 months Fasting C-peptide and HOMA-β HOMA-IR Zhao et al. [87]
13. BM-MSCs and MNCs Yes MSCs: 1 × 106/kg; MNCs:109 in total Intra-pancreatic 12 months Fasting C-peptide, glucagon stimulated c-peptide, HOMA- β, hyperglycemic clamp HOMA-IR, HOMA-S and insulin sensitivity index during hyperglycemic clamp Bhansali et al. [88]
  1. MSCs mesenchymal stem cells, MNCs mononuclear stem cells, UC umbilical cord, PD placenta-derived, CB-SC cord blood-derived multipotent stem cells, IV intravenous, HOMA-β homeostatic model assessment of beta cell function, HOMA-IR homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance