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Table 2 Characteristics and complications for Caucasians and EM patients at last contact in the young-onset cohort

From: Characteristics and cardiovascular complications of a large cohort of adults diagnosed with type 2 diabetes <45 years

  Caucasian
N = 769 (87.9%)
EM
N = 106 (12.1%)
p value
% Men 56.0 57.5 0.762
Mean age at diagnosis 37.6 ± 6.2 35.4 ± 6.8 0.001
Mean age at last visit (years) 58.4 ± 12.4 50.8 ± 11.7 <0.0001
Mean follow-up (years) 8.6 ± 4.9 7.0 ± 4.8 0.002
Mean diabetes duration (years) 21.2 ± 11.9 15.8 ± 10.6 0.002
Mean HbA1c % (mmol/mol) 7.3 ± 1.3 (56 ± 14) 7.4 ± 1.4 (57 ± 15) 0.461
 % Statin 78.1 59.4 <0.0001
Number of antihypertensive medications
 0 20.2 42.5 <0.0001
 1 16.3 23.6  
 2 21.0 11.3  
 ≥3 42.5 22.7  
% MF 53.1 62.3 0.077
% SU 1.4 (11) 2.8 (3) 0.283
% MF + SU 12.9 11.3 0.649
% Glitazones 0.4 0 0.519
% DPP-4 2.9 (67) 7.5 (4) 0.013
% GLP-1 8.7 3.8 0.080
% Insulin 81.4 86.8 0.174
% On 1 injection of insulin 5.3 4.7 0.788
% On 2 or 3 injections of insulin 7.2 5.7 0.570
% On multiple injections of insulin 68.9 76.4 0.113
Mean BMI (kg/m2) 31.4 ± 5.9 29.8 ± 4.6 0.009
 % Overweight 28.8 44.3 0.002
 % Obese 55.6 43.3 0.007
 % Hypertension 48.7 43.4 0.269
Mean TG 151.7 ± 144.7 144.8 ± 132.7 0.660
Mean LDL 76.7 ± 31.0 82.8 ± 29.7 0.075
 % High TG 30.7 29.2 0.913
 % LDL not on target in primary CV prevention 27.2 30.9 0.472
 % LDL not on target in secondary CV prevention 45.2   
 % Smoking 17.2 12.3 0.201
 % ≥3 CV risk factors 56.6 45.3 0.027
 % DRP 40.8 40.4 0.950
 % Microalbuminuria 35.1 32.1 0.667
 % New surgery lower limbs 3.0 (23) 0 (0)  
 % New TIA/CVA 1.0 (8) 0.9 (1)  
 % New cardiac event 4.3 (33) 2.8 (3)  
  1. Data are mean ± SD, % or (number)
  2. p values highlighted in italic are considered significant
  3. EM ethnic minority, MF metformin with or without insulin; SU sulfonylureum with or without insulin; DPP-4 DPP-4-inhibitor; GLP-1 GLP-1-receptor-agonist; BMI body mass index; TG triglycerides; LDL LDL-cholesterol; CV cardiovascular; DRP diabetic retinopathy; TIA transient ischemic attack; CVA cerebrovascular accident; cardiac event a myocardial infarction or an intervention such as a percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty or a coronary artery bypass graft