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Table 1 Characteristics and complications for men and women at last contact in the young-onset cohort

From: Characteristics and cardiovascular complications of a large cohort of adults diagnosed with type 2 diabetes <45 years

  Men
N = 495 (55.9%)
Women
N = 391 (44.1%)
p value
% EM 12.4 11.7 0.762
Mean age at diagnosis 38.1 ± 5.8 36.4 ± 6.9 <0.0001
Mean age at last visit (years) 56.9 ± 11.5 57.8 ± 13.8 0.283
Mean follow-up (years) 8.1 ± 4.8 8.8 ± 5.1 0.029
Mean diabetes duration (years) 19.3 ± 11.0 22.0 ± 12.7 0.001
Mean HbA1c % (mmol/mol) 7.3 ± 1.4 (56 ± 15) 7.1 ± 1.2 (54 ± 13) 0.021
 % HbA1c ≥9% (74 mmol/mol) 13.7 8.0 0.008
 % Statin 79.6 70.8 0.006
Number of antihypertensive medications    0.177
 0 21.4 25.3  
 1 18.4 15.3  
 2 17.6 23.0  
 ≥3 42.5 36.4  
% Aspirin 58.6 55.5 0.356
% MF 53.1 55.5 0.483
% SU 1.4 1.8 0.656
% MF + SU 16.6 8.2 <0.0001
% Glitazones 0.2 0.5 0.431
% DPP-4 3.6 3.3 0.802
% GLP-1 10.9 5.1 0.002
% Insulin 79.8 84.7 0.062
% On 1 injection of insulin 5.3 5.6 0.807
% On 2 or 3 injections of insulin 5.9 8.2 0.175
% On multiple injections of insulin 68.7 70.8 0.488
Mean BMI (kg/m2) 30.5 ± 4.9 32.1 ± 6.7 <0.0001
 % Overweight 39.4 23.4 <0.0001
 % Obese 51.2 64.1 <0.0001
 % Hypertension 53.4 45.3 0.019
Mean TG 162.9 ± 175.7 135.6 ± 78.8 0.007
Mean LDL 74.1 ± 30.1 81.7 ± 31.2 <0.0001
 % High TG 35.7 30.1 0.093
 % LDL not on target in primary CV prevention 24.8 32.4 0.065
 % LDL not on target in secondary CV prevention 51.1 39.9 0.052
 % Smoking 20.2 12.0 0.001
 % ≥3 CV risk factors 59.4 50.1 0.006
 % DRP 40.3 40.1 0.942
 % Microalbuminuria 40.6 26.2 0.001
Mean age first CV event 53.4 ± 9.5 57.9 ± 10.1 <0.0001
 % New surgery lower limbs 3.0 (15) 2.0 (8)  
 % New TIA/CVA 1.0 (5) 1.0 (4)  
 % New cardiac event 4.8 (24) 3.1 (12)  
  1. Data are mean ± SD, % or (number)
  2. p values highlighted in italic are considered significant
  3. EM ethnic minority; MF metformin with or without insulin; SU sulfonylureum with or without insulin; DPP-4 DPP-4-inhibitor; GLP-1 GLP-1-receptor-agonist; BMI body mass index; TG triglycerides; LDL LDL-cholesterol; CV cardiovascular; DRP diabetic retinopathy; TIA transient ischemic attack; CVA cerebrovascular accident; cardiac event a myocardial infarction or an intervention such as a percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty or a coronary artery bypass graft