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Table 1 Differences between actual body mass index (A) − declared body mass index (D)

From: Depression and alexithymia on weight perception in patients with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes

  A = D A > D A < D Total p value
Gender 0.0874
 Female 39 (74%) 36 (65%) 39 (85%) 114 (74%)  
 Male 14 (26%) 19 (35%) 7 (15%) 40 (26%)
 Total 53 (34%) 55 (36%) 46 (30%) 154 (100%)
Civil state 0.0657
 Married 30 (57%) 40 (73%) 23 (51%) 93 (61%)  
 Not married 23 (43%) 15 (27%) 22 (49%) 60 (39%)
 Total 53 (35%) 55 (36%) 45 (29%) 153 (100%)
Age intervals 0.0272
 18–40 years old 12 (23%) 10 (18%) 18 (39%) 40 (26. %)  
 41–60 years old 32 (62%) 34 (62%) 27 (59%) 93 (61%)
 ≥61 years old 8 (16%) 11 (20%) 1 (2%) 20 (13%)
 Total 52 (34%) 55 (36%) 46 (30%) 153 (100%)
Anti-hypertensive 0.0372
 No 37 (70%) 39 (69.6%) 41 (89%) 117 (75%)  
 Yes 16 (30%) 17 (30%) 5 (11%) 38 (24.5%)
A > D × A < D (with anti-hypertensive)
A = D
odds ratio = 3.574
odds ratio = 3.546
p = 0.0219
p = 0.0239
Anti-depression 0.3246
 No 47 (89%) 47 (84%) 43 (93%) 137 (88%)  
 Yes 6 (11%) 9 (16%) 3 (7%) 18 (12%)
Body mass index
 I 6 (21.4%) 0 (0.0%) 22 (78.6%) 28 (100%) <0.0001
 II 28 (41.2%) 16 (23.5%) 24 (35.3%) 68 (100%)
 III 0 (0.0%) 40 (67.8%) 19 (32.2%) 59 (100%)
Beck depression inventory 0.0499
 Low level 33 (70%) 36 (71%) 36 (90%) 105 (76%)  
 Moderate/severe 14 (30%) 15 (29%) 4 (10%) 33 (24%)
 Total 47 51 40 138 (100%)
Moderate or severe depression A > D × A < D
A = D × A < D
p = 0.0337
p = 0.0297
odds ratio = 3.648
odds ratio = 3.817
Toronto Alexithymia Scale-26 0.0161 (Fisher)
 No 1 (2%) 2 (4%) 6 (16%) 9 (7%)  
 Probable alexithymia 8 (17%) 13 (25%) 13(34%) 34 (25%)
 Alexithymia 39 (81%) 37 (71%) 19 (50%) 95 (69%)
 Total 48 52 38 138 (100%)
Alexithymia/BMI actual × BMI declared A > D × A < D
A = D × A < D
p = 0.0368
p = 0.0029
odds ratio = 2.533
odds ratio = 4.333
  1. aAnxiety measured by Beck Anxiety Inventory did not present statical significance according to Chi square test: p = 0.1497; it was observed only the following difference, comparing on their actual BMI and their declared BMI (A < D): minimal level of anxiety 68% and moderate or high level of anxiety 32%
  2. bPrevalence of probable alexithymia (38%) was among patients who did not use anti-hypertensive medication and did not have controlled hypertension. Prevalence (86%) of alexithymia among patients with controlled hypertension and used anti-hypertensive medication (p = 0.069)