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Table 3 Adjusted associations of metabolic syndrome and newly diagnosed diabetes with adherence to dietary patterns (n = 9835)

From: Brazilian dietary patterns and the dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) diet-relationship with metabolic syndrome and newly diagnosed diabetes in the ELSA-Brasil study

  Metabolic syndrome criteriaa (OR and 95% CI) P for trendb
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5
P1—Vegetables/fruits
 Model 1 1.00 0.87 (0.75, 1.00) 0.87 (0.75, 1.00) 0.96 (0.83, 1.10) 1.04 (0.90, 1.20) 0.229
 Model 2 1.00 0.91 (0.77, 1.06) 0.88 (0.75, 1.03) 0.96 (0.82, 1.13) 1.07 (0.90, 1.28) 0.366
P2—Common Brazilian fast foods/full fat dairy/milk based desserts
 Model 1 1.00 0.85 (0.74, 0.98) 0.86 (0.74, 0.99) 0.89 (0.77, 1.03) 1.08 (0.94, 1.25) 0.225
 Model 2 1.00 0.83 (0.71, 0.97) 0.81 (0.69, 0.95) 0.77 (0.65, 0.91) 0.86 (0.71, 1.04) 0.057
P3—Common Brazilian meal
 Model 1 1.00 1.51 (1.29, 1.75) 1.81 (1.55, 2.11) 2.26 (1.93, 2.65) 2.89 (2.45, 3.42) <0.001
 Model 2 1.00 1.32 (1.12, 1.56) 1.48 (1.25, 1.76) 1.81 (1.52, 2.15) 2.13 (1.76, 2.58) <0.001
P4—Diet, light foods and beverages/low fat dairy
 Model 1 1.00 1.31 (1.13, 1.51) 1.59 (1.37, 1.85) 1.78 (1.53, 2.08) 2.02 (1.72, 2.38) <0.001
 Model 2 1.00 1.24 (1.05, 1.46) 1.40 (1.18, 1.65) 1.44 (1.21, 1.71) 1.47 (1.23, 1.71) <0.001
DASH diet pattern
 Model 1 1.00 0.90 (0.78, 1.03) 0.88 (0.77, 1.01) 0.75 (0.64, 0.86) 0.72 (0.61, 0.83) <0.001
 Model 2 1.00 0.94 (0.80, 1.10) 0.96 (0.82, 1.11) 0.81 (0.69, 0.95) 0.88 (0.74, 1.05) 0.044
Newly diagnosed diabetesc
 P1—Vegetables/fruits
  Model 1 1.00 1.01 (0.81, 1.25) 0.95 (0.76, 1.19) 0.99 (0.80, 1.24) 1.19 (0.96, 1.47) 0.132
  Model 2 1.00 1.05 (0.84, 1.32) 1.00 (0.79, 1.26) 1.04 (0.82, 1.31) 1.29 (1.01, 1.65) 0.077
 P2—Common Brazilian fast foods/Full fat dairy/milk based desserts
  Model 1 1.00 0.70 (0.57, 0.85) 0.71 (0.57, 0.87) 0.66 (0.53, 0.82) 0.76 (0.61, 0.94) 0.007
  Model 2 1.00 0.67 (0.54, 0.82) 0.66 (0.53, 0.81) 0.57 (0.45, 0.72) 0.59 (0.46, 0.77) <0.001
 P3—Common Brazilian meal
  Model 1 1.00 1.54 (1.21, 1.97) 1.58 (1.23, 2.02) 1.92 (1.50, 2.46) 2.53 (1.96, 3.25) <0.001
  Model 2 1.00 1.41 (1.09, 1.80) 1.42 (1.10, 1.82) 1.64 (1.28, 2.12) 2.04 (1.56, 2.68) <0.001
 P4—Diet, light foods and beverages/low fat dairy
   Model 1 1.00 1.23 (0.99, 1.52) 1.29 (1.04, 1.61) 1.61 (1.28, 2.01) 1.71 (1.35, 2.18) <0.001
   Model 2 1.00 1.19 (0.96, 1.48) 1.21 (0.96, 1.52) 1.46 (1.15, 1.84) 1.45 (1.13, 1.88) 0.001
 DASH Diet Pattern
  Model 1 1.00 1.01 (0.82, 1.26) 1.01 (0.82, 1.25) 0.94 (0.75, 1.18) 0.91 (0.72, 1.15) 0.324
  Model 2 1.00 1.04 (0.83, 1.29) 1.07 (0.86, 1.32) 1.01 (0.80, 1.27) 1.07 (0.84, 1.36) 0.702
  1. Model 1 Adjusted through multiple logistic regression for the following variables: age (y), sex, race, education, family income (amount), occupational status, study center, menopausal status and family history of diabetes
  2. Model 2 Model 1 + BMI (kg/m2), physical activity (metabolic equivalent min/week), current and previous smoking status, alcohol (grams of ethanol/day) and calorie intake (kcal/day)
  3. aDefined by the Joint Interim Statement Consensus Criteria, 2009 (see “Methods”)
  4. bPCA components entered as continuous scores
  5. cDefined by fasting glucose, oral glucose tolerance test or glycated hemoglobin