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Table 5 Binary logistic regression analysis of independent metabolic variables for diagnostic differentiation between coronary artery disease and cardiac syndrome X (status without known diabetes mellitus)

From: Post-challenge insulin concentration is useful for differentiating between coronary artery disease and cardiac syndrome X in subjects without known diabetes mellitus

Factors p value OR 95% CI
Lower limit Upper limit
Mode 1. Metabolic health and HOMA-IR index a, b
Age (years) 0.010 1.036 1.009 1.064
Gender (male vs. female) <0.001 4.867 2.184 10.849
Body mass index (kg/m2) 0.449 1.036 0.946 1.135
Metabolically unhealthy (unhealthy vs. healthy) 0.004 2.680 1.380 5.204
HOMA-IR (mg/dl × µIU/ml) 0.554 1.022 0.950 1.099
Pre-admission statin use (with vs. without) 0.005 2.901 1.388 6.061
Mode 2. Metabolic health and OGTT 2 h glucose a, c
Age (years) 0.045 1.029 1.001 1.058
Gender (male vs. female) <0.001 5.169 2.290 11.669
Body mass index (kg/m2) 0.336 1.043 0.958 1.135
Metabolically unhealthy (unhealthy vs. healthy) 0.014 2.368 1.194 4.696
OGTT 2 h glucose (mg/dl) 0.139 1.006 0.998 1.013
Pre-admission statin use (with vs. without) 0.004 3.037 1.436 6.423
Mode 3. Metabolic health and OGTT 2 h insulin a, d
Age (years) 0.012 1.036 1.008 1.065
Gender (male vs. female) <0.001 6.544 2.763 15.502
Body mass index (kg/m2) 0.798 1.012 0.924 1.109
Metabolically unhealthy (unhealthy vs. healthy) 0.013 2.364 1.200 4.658
OGTT 2 h insulin (µIU/ml) 0.004 1.010 1.003 1.017
Pre-admission statin use (with vs. without) 0.005 2.939 1.381 2.657
  1. Metabolically unhealthy: who met ≥2 of the following four criteria: high triglycerides (≥150 mg/dl) or took lipid-lowering drugs, elevated systolic blood pressure (≥130 mmHg) or diastolic blood pressure (≥85 mmHg) or took anti-hypertensive drugs, high fasting glucose (≥100 mg/dl) or took medications for diabetes (insulin or oral anti-diabetic), and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (<40 mg/dl for men and <50 mg/dl for women)
  2. CI confidence interval, HOMA-IR homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index of insulin-resistance = (fasting glucose mg/dl x fasting insulin μU/ml)/405, OGTT oral glucose tolerance test, OR odds ratio, pre-index statin use use of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor before index admission
  3. aDependent variable: coronary artery disease vs. cardiac syndrome X
  4. bIndependent variables: demographic data, body mass index, metabolically unhealthy, statin use, and HOMA-IR
  5. cIndependent variables: demographic data, body mass index, metabolically unhealthy, statin use, and OGTT 2 h glucose
  6. dIndependent variables: demographic data, body mass index, metabolically unhealthy, statin use, and OGTT 2 h insulin