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Table 1 Main differences between short- and long-acting GLP-1 receptor agonists

From: Is there a justification for classifying GLP-1 receptor agonists as basal and prandial?

  Short-acting Long-acting
Drugs Exenatide Lixisenatide Liraglutide Exenatide-LAR Albiglutide Dulaglutide
Half-life 2–5 h 12 h to several days
Increased secretion of insulin + ++
Decreased secretion of glucagon + +
Decreased gastric emptying ++ +
Decreased fasting plasma glucose + ++
Decreased postprandial glycemia +/++a +a
Weight loss + +/++
Effects (head-to-head studies)
 Reduction in HbA1c
  Exenatide–exenatide-LAR −1.5% (0.1) −1.9% (0.1)
  Exenatide–liraglutide −0.79% (0.08) −1.12% (0.08)
  Lixisenatide–liraglutide Not evaluableb Not evaluableb
  Exenatide–dulaglutide −0.99% (0.06) −1.51% (0.06)
 Reduction in fasting plasma glucose
  Exenatide–exenatide-LAR −1.4 (0.2) mmol/L −2.3 (0.2) mmol/L
  Exenatide–liraglutide −0.6 (0.2) mmol/L −1.61 (0.2) mmol/L
  Lixisenatide–liraglutide −0.34 (0.15) mmol/L −1.3 (0.15) mmol/L
  Exenatide–dulaglutide −1.33 (0.11) mmol/L −2.39 (0.11) mmol/L
 Reduction in hyperglycemia after breakfast
  Exenatide–exenatide-LAR –6.9 (0.5) mmol/Lc –5.3 (0.5) mmol/Lc
  Exenatide–liraglutide –1.33 mmol/Ld
  Lixisenatide–liraglutide –3.9 (0.2) mmol/Le –1.4 (0.2) mmol/Le
  Exenatide–dulaglutide Similar reduction  
 Reduction in hyperglycemia after lunch and dinner
  Exenatide–exenatide-LAR Not evaluable  
  Exenatide–liraglutide No differences in meals  
  Lixisenatide–liraglutide Lower glucose levels with liraglutide  
  Exenatide–dulaglutide Higher glucose levels with exenatide  
 Weight loss
  Exenatide–exenatide-LAR –3.6 (0.5) kg –3.7 (0.5) kg (NS)
  Exenatide–liraglutide –2.87 (0.33) kg –3.24 (0.33) kg (NS)
  Lixisenatide–liraglutide Not evaluableb Not evaluableb
  Exenatide–dulaglutide –1.07 (0.29) kg –1.3 (0.29) kg
  1. Differences expressed as mean (SD)
  2. Differences are significant unless otherwise indicated (NS)
  3. aPostprandial hyperglycemia at meal after administration of the drug
  4. bShort duration of the study (28 days)
  5. cChange in postprandial glycemia at 2 h
  6. dMean difference between treatments (exenatide–liraglutide)
  7. eChange in maximum postprandial glucose excursion