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Table 1 General, seminal and molecular parameters in the studied subjects

From: Spermatozoal cell death-inducing DNA fragmentation factor-α-like effector A (CIDEA) gene expression and DNA fragmentation in infertile men with metabolic syndrome and normal seminogram

  Control (n = 45) Fertile metabolic syndrome (n = 38) Infertile metabolic syndrome (n = 37) P
Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD
General parameters
 Age (years) 39.29 ± 8.52 40.01 ± 8.22 42.59 ± 7.47 0.17
 BMI 23.64 ± 2.79 34.7 ± 8.1a 35.82 ± 4.37a <0.001
 HOMA-IR 1.70 ± 0.31 4.18 ± 0.90a 4.31 ± 0.95a <0.001
Seminal parameters
 Volume (ml) 2.18 ± 0.54 2.37 ± 0.67 2.29 ± 0.56 0.33
 Sperm concentration (106/ml) 39.45 ± 14.20 37.78 ± 9.91 34.73 ± 9.69 0.19
 Progressive motility; A + B (%) 49.67 ± 14.66 43.68 ± 11.24 32.05 ± 8.69ab <0.001
 Vitality (%) 68.70 ± 22.04 54.73 ± 16.14a 36.00 ± 8.45ab <0.001
 Normal morphology (%) 23.53 ± 6.78 22.44 ± 5.02 16.08 ± 4.29ab <0.001
 Seminal glucose (mg/dl) 33.39 ± 7.49 36.5 ± 6.68 41.73 ± 11.35ab <0.001
 Seminal insulin (μIU/L) 193.72 ± 52.91 302.28 ± 70.16a 477.83 ± 90.60ab <0.001
Molecular parameters
 Insulin/β actin gene expression 0.94 ± 0.24 1.23 ± 0.25a 1.88 ± 0.63ab <0.001
 CIDEA/β actin gene expression 1.0 ± 0.01 1.44 ± 0.07a 2.47 ± 0.12ab <0.001
 DNA fragmentation (%) 20.78 ± 7.15 26.95 ± 9.43a 35.09 ± 12.50ab <0.001
 Tail length (μm) 0.76 ± 0.17 1.86 ± 0.42a 3.68 ± 0.76ab <0.001
 DNA percentage in tail (%) 6.37 ± 1.39 8.61 ± 2.64a 18.76 ± 3.72ab <0.001
 Tail Moment (TM) 1.11 ± 0.29 3.38 ± 0.98a 5.25 ± 1.25ab <0.001
  1. SD standard deviation, P calculated probability
  2. P significant if <0.05
  3. aSignificant relative to control group
  4. bSignificant relative to fertile-metabolic syndrome group