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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of subjects

From: Hypoadiponectinemia and the presence of metabolic syndrome in patients with chronic kidney disease: results from the KNOW-CKD study

Variables Total n = 1322 Without MS n = 737 (55.7%) With MS n = 585 (44.3%) P
Age (years) 53.5 ± 12.4 51.5 ± 12.7 56.1 ± 11.5 <0.001
Sex, men (%) 803 (60.7) 430 (58.3) 373 (63.8) 0.045
Smoking (%) 645 (48.8) 335 (45.5) 310 (53.0) 0.006
BMI (kg/m2) 24.4 ± 3.4 23.0 ± 2.9 26.1 ± 3.2 <0.001
Waist (cm) 87.1 ± 9.7 82.8 ± 8.6 92.6 ± 8.3 <0.001
SBP (mmHg) 128.0 ± 16.3 123.1 ± 14.1 134.1 ± 17.0 <0.001
DBP (mmHg) 76.8 ± 11.3 75.2 ± 10.7 78.8 ± 11.6 <0.001
CKD stage (%)     <0.001
 Stage 1 153 (11.6) 107 (14.5) 46 (7.9)  
 Stage 2 243 (18.4) 151 (20.5) 92 (15.7)  
 Stage 3 511 (38.7) 285 (38.7) 226 (38.6)  
 Stage 4 312 (23.6) 149 (20.2) 163 (27.9)  
 Stage 5 103 (7.8) 45 (6.1) 58 (9.9)  
Cause of CKD (%)     <0.001
 Glomerulonephritis 420 (31.8) 278 (37.7) 142 (24.3)  
 Diabetes mellitus 295 (22.3) 87 (11.8) 208 (35.6)  
 Hypertension 273 (20.7) 132 (17.9) 141 (24.1)  
 PKD 239 (18.1) 181 (24.6) 58 (9.9)  
Laboratory findings
 Hemoglobin (g/dL) 12.8 ± 2.0 12.9 ± 1.9 12.7 ± 2.1 0.303
 Albumin (g/dL) 4.19 ± 0.40 4.22 ± 0.37 4.15 ± 0.43 0.002
 Glucose (mg/dL) 107.6 ± 36.0 98.7 ± 23.2 118.7 ± 45.0 <0.001
 Uric acid (mg/dL) 7.12 ± 1.99 6.85 ± 1.94 7.47 ± 1.99 <0.001
 Calcium (mg/dL) 8.96 ± 0.45 8.95 ± 0.43 8.96 ± 0.47 0.766
 Phosphate (mg/dL) 3.70 ± 0.66 3.65 ± 0.61 3.78 ± 0.71 <0.001
 Cholesterol (mg/dL) 173.8 ± 37.5 172.6 ± 35.4 175.4 ± 39.9 0.191
 TG (mg/dL) 154.3 ± 96.2 113.8 ± 57.8 205.3 ± 109.7 <0.001
 HDL-C (mg/dL) 49.6 ± 15.8 55.2 ± 15.4 42.7 ± 13.5 <0.001
 LDL-C (mg/dL) 96.6 ± 30.7 96.5 ± 29.4 96.8 ± 32.2 0.889
 hs-CRP (mg/dL) 0.07 (0.02–0.25) 0.05 (0.02–0.18) 0.12 (0.04–0.34) <0.001
 UACR (mg/g Cr) 273 (65–793) 208 (45–533) 398 (113–1557) <0.001
 eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 49.3 ± 29.8 53.7 ± 30.9 43.8 ± 27.3 <0.001
 Adiponectin (μg/mL) 10.7 (6.2–17.8) 12.5 (7.1–19.6) 8.6 (5.3–14.9) <0.001
  Male 9.1 (5.2–15.4) 10.5 (5.9–17.1) 7.7 (4.7–13.4) <0.001
  Female 13.1 (8.1–21.1) 14.4 (9.6–22.5) 10.8 (7.0–17.9) <0.001
  DM 10.5 (5.8–19.1) 13.4 (7.6–23.2) 8.0 (5.2–12.4) 0.001
  Non-DM 10.8 (6.3–17.5) 12.4 (7.0–19.0) 9.7 (5.4–17.3) <0.001
Co-morbidity, n (%)
 Hypertension 1215 (91.9) 651 (92.1) 564 (97.2) <0.001
 DM 425 (32.1) 125 (17.0) 300 (51.3) <0.001
 CVD 114 (8.6) 53 (7.2) 61 (10.4) 0.037
 CAD 99 (7.5) 35 (4.7) 64 (10.9) <0.001
 PAD 24 (1.8) 9 (1.2) 15 (2.6) 0.069
 CHF 11 (0.8) 4 (0.5) 7 (1.2) 0.194
 Arrhythmia 29 (2.2) 16 (2.2) 13 (2.2) 0.950
Medication, n (%)
 ACEi 166 (12.6) 93 (12.6) 73 (12.5) 0.939
 ARB 1046 (79.1) 562 (76.3) 484 (82.7) 0.004
 Diuretics 432 (32.7) 171 (23.2) 261 (44.6) <0.001
 Beta blocker 368 (27.8) 142 (19.3) 226 (38.6) <0.001
 Statin 649 (49.1) 321 (43.6) 328 (56.1) <0.001
 Ezetimibe 95 (7.2) 42 (5.7) 53 (9.1) 0.019
 Fibrate 31 (2.3) 7 (0.9) 24 (4.1) <0.001
  1. MS metabolic syndrome, BMI body mass index, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, CKD chronic kidney disease, PKD, polycystic kidney disease, TG triglyceride, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hs-CRP high sensitivity C-reactive protein, UACR urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, DM diabetes mellitus, CVD cerebrovascular disease, CAD coronary artery disease, PAD peripheral artery disease, CHF congestive heart failure, ACEi angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB angiotensin II receptor blocker