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Table 1 Metabolic characteristics of the studied groups

From: Adipose tissue dysfunction increases fatty liver association with pre diabetes and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus

  Normoglycemic n = 1036 Impaired fasting glucose n = 182 Newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus n = 46 p trend
Age (years) 51.7 ± 9 54.2 ± 8* 54.9 ± 9 <0.001
Gender (male) 499 (51.8%) 102 (56%) 29 (63%)* 0.017
BMI (kg/m2) 28.2 ± 4 30.2 ± 4* 30.4 ± 5* <0.001
Alcohol consumption (>30 gr/day) 18 (1.7%) 3 (1.7%) 2 (4.3%) 0.610
Hypertension (%) 209 (20) 55 (30)* 12 (26) <0.001
LDL-C (mmol/l) 3.08 ± 0.8 3.21 ± 0.9 3.10 ± 0.8 0.195
HDL-C (mmol/l) 1.16 (0.96–1.40) 1.05 (0.88–1.24)* 1.04 (0.85–1.16)* <0.001
Triglycerides (mmol/l) 1.60 (1.21–2.18) 2.01 (1.45–2.73)* 2.29 (1.67–3.13)* <0.001
Fasting glucose (mmol/l) 4.89 (4.6–5.2) 5.77 (5.7–6.1)* 8.49 (7.7–12.2)* <0.001
HOMA-IR 3.4 (2.49–4.89) 6.16 (4.6–8.1)* 8.98 (6.4–12)* <0.001
hsCRP (nmol/l) 14.0 (7.52–28.6) 21.8 (9.5–38.0)* 21.8 (10.5–36.2)* <0.001
Adipo-IR (mmol/l·μU/l) 8.8 (5.7–13.1) 13.3 (9.2–20)* 12.3 (8.9–17.9)* <0.001
Free fatty acids (mmol/l) 0.55 (0.43–0.69) 0.57 (0.43–0.69) 0.59 (0.52–0.76)* 0.0312
Adiponectin (µg/ml)a 8.3 (5.1–13) 6.7 (3.9-10–2)* 6.4 (2.8–9.2)* <0.001
Subcutaneous adipose tissue (cm2) 282 (212–360) 307 (250–384)* 297 (2–405) 0.005
Total adipose tissue (cm2) 428 (3–531) 491 (424–587)* 502 (403–607)* <0.001
Visceral adipose tissue (cm2) 143 (105–184) 176 (139–229)* 177 (139–229)* <0.001
Liver to spleen attenuation ratio 1.12 (0.96–1.22) 0.96 (0.75–1.11)* 0.89 (0.68–1.01)* <0.001
  1. Values are expressed as mean ± standard deviation, median (interquartile range) or number of subjects (%)
  2. HDL-C high density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C low density lipoprotein cholesterol, HOMA-IR homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance
  3. * p < 0.05 vs normoglycemic
  4. p < 0.05 vs impaired fasting glucose
  5. an = 985 for normoglycemic group, n = 167 for impaired fasting glucose group and n = 41 for newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus group