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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of 108 T2DM patients followed at an outpatient Endocrinology Clinic in Brazil

From: Relationship between vitamin D status, glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in Brazilians with type 2 diabetes mellitus

Variable Overall Hypovitaminosis D p
(n = 108) No (n = 41) Yes (n = 67)
Age (years) 58.29 ± 10.34 58.24 ± 9.99 59.19 ± 10.33 0.48
Female gender 78 (72.2%) 23 (56.1%) 55 (82.2%) 0.01
Non-white skin color 97 (89.8%) 39 (95.1%) 58 (86.6%) 0.20
T2DM duration (years) 14.34 ± 8.05 15.38 ± 8.30 14.06 ± 8.30 0.59
BMI 28.01 ± 4.64 27.17 ± 3.87 28.65 ± 4.99 0.13
Obesity a 35 (32.4%) 8 (19.5%) 27 (40.1%) 0.02
Comorbidities Hypertension 82 (74.1%) 30 (73.2%) 52 (77.6%) 0.60
Dyslipidemia 83 (76.8%) 23 (56.1%) 60 (89.5%) <0.01
Insulin use Insulin use 78 (72.2%) 30 (73.2%) 48 (71.6%) 0.86
NPH insulin 77 (71.3%) 29 (70.7%) 48 (71.6%) 0.92
Regular insulin 42 (38.9%) 18 (43.9%) 24 (35.8%) 0.40
Oral antidiabetic agent Sulfonylurea 26 (24.1%) 10 (24.4%) 16 (23.9%) 0.95
Metformin 84 (77.8%) 34 (82.9%) 50 (74.6%) 0.31
α-Glucosidase inhibitor 5 (4.6%) 1 (2.4%) 4 (6.0%) 0.40
Combination treatment Insulin plus OAD 57 (52.8%) 24 (58.5%) 33 (49.2%) 0.35
Insulin plus metformin 5 (4.6%) 2 (4.9%) 3 (4.5%) 1.00
Insulin plus sulfonylurea 56 (51.8%) 24 (58.5%) 32 (47.8%) 0.28
Metformin plus sulfonylurea 23 (21.3%) 9 (21.9%) 14 (20.9%) 0.90
Lipid lowering agents Statins 69 (63.9%) 20 (48.8%) 49 (73.1%) 0.01
Fibrates 4 (3.8%) 1 (2.4%) 3 (4.5%) 1.00
Antihypertensive agents 86 (79.6%) 33 (80.5%) 53 (79.1%) 0.86
  1. Italic values indicate statistically significant p-value
  2. T2DM type 2 diabetes mellitus, OAD oral antidiabetic agent
  3. aBMI ≥30 kg/m2