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Table 2 Factors potentially involved in explaining changes in a population’s prevalence of diabetes

From: Factors that could explain the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes among adults in a Canadian province: a critical review and analysis

Categories of factors Factors potentially involved
Individual-level risk factors Age [5, 3540], obesity [711, 13, 3541], ethnicity [35, 42, 43], chronic disease (hypertension [44, 45], high triglycerides [44, 45], prediabetes [35, 46]), lifestyle (eating behavior [5, 6, 12, 14, 47], physical activity [57, 12, 14], smoking [5, 12, 13, 48], excessive alcohol consumption [14, 49, 50]), socio economic status [5, 51], low education [43, 51, 52], gestionnal diabetes [7, 35], intra uterin environnment [35], nutritional transition status [7] and diabetes familial history [5]
Environmental risk factors Urbanization [5, 6, 12, 44, 53] environnmental pollution [35, 5456] and rapid socioeconomic development [35]
Evolution of the disease Increasing incidence rate [15, 17, 18, 23, 26, 27, 30, 32, 43, 5763] decreasing mortality rate [15, 16, 18, 2231, 64] and increasing conversion rate from prediabetes to diabetes [65]
Detection effect Increase in number of people screened [22, 66] or diagnosed [57, 67] and decrease in people undiagnosed [9, 10, 57, 68, 69] or not screened [22], decreasing age at detection [36, 58, 70, 71] or increase in the prevalence of diabetes at earlier age [35, 45, 71], decreasing HbA1c mean at detection and change in diagnostic criteria [35]
Global changes Period effect [19] and birth cohort effect [19, 20]