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Table 4 Clinical recommendations for screening of CD in T1DM patients in adult CD and T1DM guidelines

From: Screening for coeliac disease in adult patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: myths, facts and controversy

Guidelines Years Recommendation Reference
CD guidelines   
 Gastroenterological Society of Australia 2007 Not reported [85]
 Dutch Society of Gastroenterology 2008 Testing for CD in case of clinical suspicion [86]
 World Gastroenterology Organisation 2013 Not reported [88]
 American College of Gastroenterology 2013 Testing for CD if there are any digestive symptoms, or signs, or laboratory evidence suggestive of CD [89]
 British Society of Gastroenterology 2014 Testing for CD should be performed when CD is suspected [2]
 National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) 2015 Test for CD at the moment of CD diagnosis and in case of persisting symptoms [90]
T1DM guidelines  
 American Diabetes Association 2014 Screening for CD soon after T1DM diagnosis, thereafter screening should be considered based on signs and symptoms [6]
 National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) 2015 In case of low BMI or weight loss, screen for CD [87]
 Australian Diabetes Society 2011 Screen for CD at diagnosis and at least in the first five years after diagnosis [91]
  1. BMI body mass index, CD coeliac disease, T1DM Type 1 diabetes mellitus