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Table 3 Clinical consequences of coeliac disease (CD) in adult Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) patients as compared to T1DM without CD

From: Screening for coeliac disease in adult patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: myths, facts and controversy

Clinical consequence T1DM + CD Patients on GFD References
HbA1c Hba1c in screen detected CD patients is lower (Kaukinen, Bakker), higher (Leeds) NA [50]
NA [51]
NA [59]
No difference in HbA1c during follow up Yes [51]
Yes [54]
No increased risk for hospital admission due to hypoglycaemia, keto-acidosis or coma Unknown [52]
Cholesterol + triglycerides Lower in screen detected CD patients NA [59]
NA [54]
Nephropathy Higher prevalence of nephropathy Unknown [65]
Unknown [64]
Retinopathy <10 years of CD results in less retinopathy, more than 10 years leads to more retinopathy Unknown [60]
Yes [51]
Bone mineral density Lower BMD at diagnosis NA [71]
Quality of life Decrease, particularly in women, both social functioning and general health perception are affected Yes [75]
Depression Increased risk Unknown [77]
Refractory Coeliac disease ?   ?
Enteropathy associated T cell lymphoma ?   ?
Mortality A diagnosis of CD for >15 years increases the risk of death in patients with T1D Unknown [82]
  1. ?, no studies performed; NA, not applicable