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Table 1 Dietary plan macronutrient composition for DKD in the non-dialysis stage.

From: Interactions between kidney disease and diabetes: dangerous liaisons

Macronutrients Recommended intake/day
Total carbohydrates 45–60 % of TEI (total energy intake)
Saccharose Up to 10 %
Fructose Not recommended its addition to food
Dietary fibers Minimum of 20 g/day or 14 g/1000 kcal
Total fat Up to 30 % of TEI
Saturated fatty acids (SFA) <7 % of TEI
Trans fatty acids (TFA) ≤2 g
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) Up to 10 % of TEI
Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) Supplemented individually
Cholesterol <200 mg/day
Proteins 0.8–1.0 g/kg/day in the early stages of disease and <0.8 g/kg/day in the final phases