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Table 1 Demographic, clinical, and metabolic characteristics of the population by region and country

From: Challenges associated with insulin therapy progression among patients with type 2 diabetes: Latin American MOSAIc study baseline data

  All Mosaic cohort LA Non-LA countries p Argentina Brazil México p
Mean age, years (SD) 61.77 (11.02) 61.99 (11.21) 61.74 (10.99) 0.6326 65.48 (10.55) 61.03 (9.51) 60.00 (12.26) <0.0001
Gender—females, n (%) 2176 (50.1 %) 293 (56.2 %) 1883 (49.3 %) 0.0029 76 (47.5 %) 100 (64.5 %) 117 (56.8 %) 0.0095
Education
 Primary school, n (%) 1291 (29.7 %) 251 (48.2 %) 1040 (27.2 %) <0.0001 83 (51.9 %) 65 (41.9 %) 103 (50.0 %) 0.0474
 High school or more, n (%) 2715 (62.5 %) 235 (45.1 %) 2480 (64.9 %) 69 (43.1 %) 69 (44.5 %) 97 (47.1 %)
Insurance
 Private, n (%) 917 (21.1 %) 134 (25.7 %) 783 (20.5 %) 0.0223 56 (35.0 %) 48 (31.0 %) 30 (14.6 %) <0.0001
 Public, n (%) 2229 (51.3 %) 247 (47.4 %) 1982 (51.9 %) 65 (40.6 %) 76 (49.0 %) 106 (51.5 %)
 Uninsured, n (%) 848 (19.5 %) 103 (19.8 %) 745 (19.5 %) 35 (21.9 %) 16 (10.3 %) 52 (25.2 %)
Mean diabetes duration, years (SD) 12.65 (7.98) 13.52 (8.77) 12.54 (7.87) 0.0083 13.71 (9.77) 13.46 (7.78) 13.42 (8.69) 0.9492
Comorbidities
 MI or CAD, n (%) 824 (19.0 %) 38 (7.3 %) 786 (20.6 %) <0.0001 16 (10.0 %) 15 (9.7 %) 7 (3.4 %) 0.0217
 Stroke, n (%) 151 (3.5 %) 10 (1.9 %) 141 (3.7 %) 0.0384 4 (2.5 %) 5 (3.2 %) 1 (0.5 %) 0.1393
 Congestive heart failure, n (%) 237 (5.5 %) 6 (1.2 %) 231 (6.0 %) <0.0001 0 (0.0 %) 3 (1.9 %) 3 (1.5 %) 0.2383
 Nephropathy, n (%) 685 (15.8 %) 48 (9.2 %) 637 (16.7 %) <0.0001 14 (8.8 %) 17 (11.0 %) 17 (8.3 %) 0.6574
 Neuropathy, n (%) 1194 (27.5 %) 85 (16.3 %) 1109 (29.0 %) <0.0001 14 (8.8 %) 22 (14.2 %) 49 (23.8 %) 0.0004
 Retinopathy, n (%) 954 (22.0 %) 78 (15.0 %) 876 (22.9 %) <0.0001 24 (15.0 %) 24 (15.5 %) 30 (14.6 %) 0.9709
 Depression, n (%) 370 (8.5 %) 46 (8.8 %) 324 (8.5 %) 0.7899 4 (2.5 %) 16 (10.3 %) 26 (12.6 %) 0.0024
Hypertension, n (%) 2994 (69.0 %) 335 (64.3 %) 2659 (69.6 %) 0.0140 112 (70.0 %) 110 (71.0 %) 113 (54.9 %) 0.0013
Hyperlipidemia, n (%) 2484 (57.2 %) 259 (49.7 %) 2225 (58.2 %) 0.0002 81 (50.6 %) 93 (60.0 %) 85 (41.3 %) 0.0019
HbA1c, mean (SD) 8.20 (2.47) 8.40 (2.79) 8.18 (2.28) 0.0686 8.08 (2.05) 8.34 (2.38) 8.70 (3.55) 0.1108
HbA1c physician reported goal (SD) 7.02 (0.77) 7.10 (0.76) 7.01 (0.73) 0.011 7.17 (0.65) 7.11 (0.89) 7.04 (0.79) 0.2917
BMI, mean (SD) 29.58 (6.39) 29.78 (5.64) 29.55 (6.49) 0.4437 31.24 (6.22) 30.21 (5.46) 28.32 (4.81) <0.0001
Systolic blood pressure, mean (SD) 132.42 (16.83) 132.94 (17.24) 132.34 (16.72) 0.4395 133.64 (13.69) 135.49 (19.88) 130.49 (17.54) 0.0214
  1. BMI body mass index, CAD coronary artery disease, LA = Latin America, MI myocardial infarction, SD standard deviation