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Table 3 Determinants of being at BP target (Europe <140/80 mmHg, USA <130/80 mmHg) at baseline stratified by prior CVD status

From: LEADER 7: cardiovascular risk profiles of US and European participants in the LEADER diabetes trial differ

  No prior CVD group (n = 1013) Prior CVD group (n = 4996)
  Odds ratio 95 % CI P value Odds ratio 95 % CI P value
Region (Europe as reference group) 1.662 1.150; 2.402 0.007 1.314 1.136; 1.520 <0.001
Age (per year) 0.959 0.928; 0.990 0.009 0.992 0.982; 1.002 0.115
Sex (male as reference group) 0.823 0.341; 1.707 0.641 1.070 0.901; 1.270 0.438
Diabetes duration (per year) 1.020 0.998; 1.042 0.082 1.003 0.995; 1.012 0.472
Race (white as reference group)
 Asian 1.758 0.457; 6.795   0.880 0.483; 1.560 0.064
 Black 1.070 0.517; 2.318 0.604 0.724 0.551; 0.946  
 Other 0.442 0.063; 1.987   0.621 0.304; 1.189  
BMI (18–25, reference group) ( kg/m2)
 25–30 1.217 0.577;2.677   0.889 0.655; 1.212  
 30–35 0.913 0.436;1.998 0.009 0.793 0.587; 1.077 0.008
 35–40 0.511 0.229;1.177   0.693 0.503; 0.957  
 >40 0.650 0.283;1.533   0.623 0.442; 0.879  
Number of antihypertensive medications
 0 (reference group)       
 1 1.142 0.698; 1.897   0.918 0.693; 1.221  
 2 0.716 0.415; 1.244 0.096 1.010 0.772; 1.326 <0.001
 3 0.650 0.333; 1.256   0.648 0.477; 0.881  
 4 1.024 0.360; 2.670   0.646 0.424;0.975  
Creatinine, per umol/L 0.986 0.942; 1.021 0.488 1.004 1.000; 1.008 0.058
ACR, per mg/mmol 0.992 0.983; 0.999 0.013 0.994 0.992; 0.996 <0.001
eGFR,per mL/min/1.73 m2 0.985 0.956; 1.007 0.239 0.998 0.992; 1.003 0.334
Micro-albuminuria 0.895 0.628; 1.275 0.538 0.947 0.774; 1.155 0.592
Macro-albuminuria 0.918 0.507; 1.635 0.775 1.562 1.060; 2.287 0.024
  1. Logistic multivariable regression modelling the probability of being at BP target, adjusted for: age, sex, diabetes duration, race, BMI category, number of antihypertensive medications, renal function (creatinine, ACR, eGFR), and micro- and macro-albuminuria
  2. ACR albumin:creatinine ratio; BMI body mass index; BP blood pressure; CI confidence interval; CVD cardiovascular disease; eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate
  3. Overall P values relating to the significance of that factor