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Table 2 Determinants of being at HbA1c target at baseline (HbA1c ≤ 7.5 %), stratified by prior CVD status

From: LEADER 7: cardiovascular risk profiles of US and European participants in the LEADER diabetes trial differ

  No prior CVD group (n = 1013) Prior CVD group (n = 4996)
Odds ratio 95 % CI P value Odds ratio 95 % CI P value
Region (Europe as reference group) 0.475 0.316; 0.704 <0.001 0.762 0.647; 0.896 0.001
Age (per year) 1.015 0.981; 1.050 0.393 1.032 1.020; 1.043 <0.001
Sex (male as reference group) 0.485 0.169; 1.271 0.148 0.834 0.685; 1.011 0.065
Diabetes duration (per year) 0.976 0.951; 1.000 0.055 0.976 0.967; 0.986 <0.001
Race (white as reference group)
 Asian 0.970 0.139; 4.258   0.598 0.257; 1.223  
 Black 1.691 0.672; 4.244 0.718 1.069 0.780; 1.452 0.266
 Other 1.358 0.195; 6.005   0.604 0.258; 1.248  
Pre-trial diabetes treatment (none, diet as reference group)
 Insulin + OADs 1.080 0.475; 2.710   0.800 0.586; 1.102  
 Insulin only 0.956 0.272; 3.215 0.543 0.532 0.349; 0.805 <0.001
 OADs only 1.365 0.629; 3.312   1.248 0.930; 1.693  
BMI (18–25 as reference group) (kg/m2)
 25–30 0.628 0.286; 1.446   1.220 0.871; 1.730  
 30–35 0.788 0.369; 1.780 0.235 1.010 0.723; 1.427 0.049
 35–40 0.619 0.273; 1.464   1.036 0.729; 1.488  
 >40 1.082 0.476; 2.575   0.824 0.561; 1.219  
Creatinine, per μmol/L 0.966 0.915; 1.015 0.179 0.998 0.993; 1.002 0.288
ACR, per mg/mmol 1.002 0.997; 1.005 0.421 1.000 0.999; 1.002 0.471
eGFR, per mL/min/1.73 m2 0.967 0.931; 1.000 0.048 0.992 0.986; 0.998 0.007
  1. Logistic multivariable regression modelling the probability of being at HbA1c target, adjusted for: age, sex, diabetes duration, race, pre-trial diabetes treatment, BMI category and renal function (creatinine, ACR, eGFR)
  2. ACR albumin:creatinine ratio, BMI body mass index, CI confidence interval, CVD cardiovascular disease, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, OAD oral antidiabetic drug
  3. Overall P values relating to the significance of that factor