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Table 3 Nutritional recommendations, intake, and prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intakes in women with metabolic syndrome (n = 84)

From: Inadequacies in the habitual nutrient intakes of patients with metabolic syndrome: a cross-sectional study

Micronutrients EAR/AI Mean SD Intake percentiles % of inadequacy
10th 25th 50th 75th 90th
Vitamin A (μg/d)a 500 659.8 518.9 263.4 354.8 498.4 760.2 1427.9 37.8
Vitamin C (mg/d) 60 88.5 83.3 27.0 38.9 73.2 109.3 163.1 36.7
Vitamin D (μg/d) 10 2.7 1.3 1.3 1.7 2.4 3.1 4.6 100.0
Vitamin E (mg/d)b 12 12.1 6.1 5.6 7.5 10.9 15.7 21.0 49.2
Thiamin (mg/d) 0.9 1.1 0.6 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 37.8
Riboflavin (mg/d) 0.9 1.0 0.4 0.6 0.7 0.9 1.1 1.3 45.2
Vitamin B6 (mg/d)c 19–50 years 1.1 1.4 0.3 1.1 1.3 1.4 1.6 1.8 11.1
 >50 years 1.3 1.5 0.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 15.4
Niacin (mg/d)d 11 17.7 6.7 11.8 13.9 16.7 21.0 24.9 15.9
Phosphorus (mg/d) 580 776.7 232.5 528.2 632.6 757.8 939.5 1060.2 19.8
Magnesium (mg/d)e 19–30 years 255 200.9 114.8 120.4 138.5 163.6 244.4 431.4 68.1
 >30 years 265 184.1 51.7 123.2 154.6 177.6 206.9 237.2 94.1
Zinc (mg/d) 6.8 7.8 2.4 5.3 6.2 7.2 8.8 10.8 34.8
Copper (mg/d) 0.7 0.9 0.3 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.1 25.5
Iron (mg/d)c,f 19–50 years 8.1 11.4 2.3 9.0 10.3 10.8 12.7 13.7 2.0
 >50 years 5.0 11.2 1.1 10.0 10.2 11.0 11.9 12.9 7.8
Selenium (μg/d) 45 54.2 28.4 22.9 35.8 50.4 66.8 85.5 37.1
Calcium (mg/d)c 19–50 years 800 454.3 141.8 289.5 342.3 430.2 528.1 659.2 99.3
 >50 years 1000 463.3 111.7 330.5 373.3 456.0 542.9 607.3 100.0
Potassium (mg/d)g 4700 1706.1 514.0 1110.1 1374.5 1647.0 1945.0 2464.3
  1. EAR estimated average requirement; AI adequate intake
  2. aCalculated as retinol activity equivalents
  3. bCalculated as α-tocopherol equivalents
  4. c19–50 years (n = 44); >50 years (n = 40)
  5. dCalculated as niacin equivalents
  6. e19–30 years (n = 6); >30 years (n = 78)
  7. fInadequate iron intake was calculated by the probability approach
  8. gAI value