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Table 1 General characteristics of the study subjects (N = 365)

From: Relationship between deep subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue and metabolic syndrome: a case control study

  Normal control (n = 178) MS group (n = 187) p value*
Male 91 (51.12 %) 107 (57.21 %) 0.250
Age (year) 51.208 ± 17.315 54.439 ± 14.344 0.054
Smoking status    0.341
 Never/ex-smokers 139 (78.09 %) 156 (83.42 %)  
 Current smokers 39 (21.91 %) 31 (16.58 %)  
Weight (kg) 61.595 ± 11.416 74.796 ± 14.067 <0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 22.985 ± 3.849 27.241 ± 3.841 <0.001
WC (cm) 82.296 ± 8.240 94.980 ± 6.821 <0.001
Glucose (mg/dL) 104.440 ± 38.161 114.934 ± 28.573 0.003
Triglyceride (mg/dL) 104.511 ± 56.979 187.348 ± 111.942 <0.001
HDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 53.836 ± 15.370 43.743 ± 11.334 <0.001
SBP (mm Hg) 119.483 ± 12.779 134.953 ± 16.053 <0.001
DBP (mm Hg) 71.730 ± 9.423 78.443 ± 13.344 <0.001
Insulin (µU/mL) 7.301 ± 6.730 11.677 ± 9.820 <0.001
HOMA-IR 1.883 ± 1.905 3.426 ± 3.405 <0.001
VAT (cm2) 78.041 ± 40.241 155.411 ± 52.241 <0.001
DSAT (cm2) 74.345 ± 34.487 113.896 ± 47.868 <0.001
SSAT (cm2) 80.891 ± 45.847 98.456 ± 48.189 0.001
SAT (cm2) 151.120 ± 73.331 211.384 ± 81.868 <0.001
Adiponectin (µg/mL) 6.306 ± 2.898 5.453 ± 5.228 <0.001
Resistin (ng/mL) 6.657 ± 4.006 8.614 ± 4.011 0.047
Leptin (ng/mL) 6.136 ± 6.474 6.656 ± 5.574 0.015
TNF-α (pg/mL) 3.402 ± 3.895 6.676 ± 5.707 0.003
IL-6 (pg/mL) 2.613 ± 1.995 3.306 ± 1.532 0.004
ICAM (ng/mL) 118.062 ± 48.877 166.617 ± 65.287 <0.001
MCP-1 (pg/mL) 245.731 ± 80.592 304.719 ± 92.347 <0.001
oxLDL (U/L) 65.043 ± 16.715 85.536 ± 21.876 <0.001
L/A 1.301 ± 1.755 1.739 ± 1.918 0.024
  1. Values are expressed as the mean ± SD (standard deviation), n number of subjects, BMI body mass index, WC waist circumference, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, VAT visceral adipose tissue, DSAT deep subcutaneous adipose tissue, SSAT superficial subcutaneous adipose tissue, TNF-α tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IL-6 interleukin-6, ICAM intercellular adhesion molecule, MCP-1 monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, oxLDL oxidized low-density lipoprotein, L/A leptin to adiponectin ratio
  2. * Statistical significance was tested using independent t-tests or χ2 test