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Table 2 Prevalence (%) and means of clinical characteristics in patients with and without previous ulcer

From: Baseline characteristics and risk factors for ulcer, amputation and severe neuropathy in diabetic foot at risk: the BRAZUPA study

Variable Previous ulceration p
Yes No
Age (years) 58.4 57.5 0.26
Sex (female/male) 41.7/58.3 64.4/35.6 <0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 29.4 29.3 0.88
Ethnicity    0.008
 White 61.2 51.2  
 Black 14.4 20.1  
 Mixed 20 20.9  
 Asian 4.4 7.8  
Type of diabetes (1/2) 9.9/90.1 9.4/90.6 0.77
Diabetes duration (years) 17.2 13.2 <0.001
HbA1c (%) 9.23 8.35 <0.001
Smoking (yes) 25.8 22.7 0.25
Hypertension (yes) 80.3 82 0.49
Cardiopathy (yes) 39.5 24.4 <0.001
Dyslipidemia (yes) 71.2 73.5 0.45
Nephropathy (ClCr < 60 ml/min) 29.6 18.8 <0.001
Retinopathy (yes) 69.8 38 <0.001
Visual impairment (yes) 63.3 46.1 <0.001
Foot at risk classification    <0.001
 Foot without risk 7.9 48.6  
 Neuropathic 52.3 27.2  
 Ischemic 4.8 9.9  
 Neuroischemic 35 14.3  
Score of symptoms    0.44
 Normal/mild 47.3 49.9  
 Moderate/severe 52.7 50.1  
Disability score    <0.001
 Normal/mild 53.1 80.5  
 Moderate/severe 46.9 19.5  
Treatment of neuropathy (yes) 17.3 11.9 0.015
Region    0.001
 South/Southeast 65.1 54.6  
 Northeast/Midwest 34.9 45.4