Skip to main content


Table 1 Characteristics of included randomized control trials

From: The chronic care model for type 2 diabetes: a systematic review

References Number of participants Demographic characteristics (age and gender) Study duration Primary outcomes Secondary outcomes
Wagner et al. [7] 707 Mean age of intervention group: 61.2 years Males in intervention group: 56 % 24 months 3 scales of SF-36 (general health, physical function, and physical role function), the presence of bed disability, and restricted-activity days CES-D, HbA1c, total cholesterol, number of visits and hospitalization
Glasgow et al. [21] 886 Mean age of intervention group: 62 years Males in intervention group: 47.7 % 6 months Improving both laboratory assays and patient-centered aspects of care Quality of life, biologic outcomes (lipids and HbA1c levels), and depressive symptoms
Piatt et al. [16] 119 Mean age of intervention group: 69 years Males in intervention group: 53.3 % 1 year HbA1c, LDL-C, and BP Quality of life and glycemic self-monitoring
Hiss et al. [18] 197 Mean age of intervention group: 55.7 years Males in intervention group: 32 % 6 months HbA1C, BP, and cholesterol NR
Smith et al. [19] 639 Mean age of intervention group: 62 years Males in intervention group: 45 % 21 months (range 3–36 months) The process of diabetes care, metabolic and vascular risk factor control, and the cost of care BP, HbA1c, LDL-C, creatinine, and microalbumin levels
Goderis et al. [14] 2475 Mean age of intervention group: 68 years Males in intervention group: 47 % 18 months HbA1c, SBP, and LDL-C levels HDL-C, total cholesterol, DPB, weight, smoking status, statin and antiplatelet therapy efficacy
Schillinger et al. [17] 339 Mean age of participants: 56.1 years Males in intervention group: 41 % 1 year 1-year change in self-management behavior HbA1C, SBP, DBP, and BMI
Glasgow et al. [23] 463 Mean age of intervention group: 58.7 years Males in intervention group: 55.4 % 4 months   HbA1c, BMI, lipids, and BP
Carter et al. [22] 47 Mean age of intervention group: 52 years Males in intervention group: 30.7 % 9 months HbA1c level of 7 % or less BP less than 130/80 and achieving a BMI between 18.5 and 24.9
Foy et al. [20] 869 NR 5 years Mean HbA1c, cholesterol, and BP levels, and numbers of patients with recorded foot inspections in the previous calendar month The number of patients within target ranges for HbA1c, cholesterol, and BP; the number of HbA1c, cholesterol, and ACR tests requested; and the mean practice BP levels for patients with and without recorded microalbuminuria
Lee et al. [13] 157 Mean age not reported Males in intervention group: 39.1 % 28 weeks HbA1c concentration, DM self-efficacy scale, dietary behaviors, BMI, and waist circumference Lifestyle changes (e.g., eating habits)
Piatt [15] 119 Mean age of intervention group: 69 years Males in intervention group: 53.3 % 3 years Sustained improvements in HbA1C, non-HDL-C, and BP levels at 3 year follow-up Diabetes knowledge, empowerment, quality of life, and self-monitoring of glycemia
  1. Adapted from Wagner et al. [7]
  2. SF short form health survey; CES-D center for epidemiologic studies depression scale; HbA1c glycated hemoglobin; LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; BP blood pressure; NR not reported; SBP systolic blood pressure; HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; DBP diastolic blood pressure; BMI body mass index; ACR albumin/creatinine ratio; DM diabetes mellitus