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Table 1 Differences between groups and gender demonstrated by means and standard deviation (SD)

From: Elevated glycated hemoglobin levels impair blood pressure in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus

  Normotensive Prehypertension P P b Boys Girls
Disease duration, years 5.32 ± 3.62 7.54 ± 3.78* 0.029 0.758 6.31 ± 4.26 6.00 ± 3.38
Age, years 12.78 ± 1.16 13.27 ± 1.20 0.132 0.132 13.20 ± 1.36 12.74 ± 0.99
Body weight, kg 46.40 ± 9.04 52.38 ± 6.90* 0.013 0.852 48.35 ± 8.09 48.80 ± 9.50
Height, cm 1.56 ± 0.06 1.59 ± 0.07 0.082 0.077 1.59 ± 0.07 1.55 ± 0.06
Body mass index, kg/m2 19.09 ± 3.10 20.58 ± 2.48 0.080 0.172 19.07 ± 2.30 20.20 ± 3.45
Z score body weighta −0.57 (−4.72 to 1.62) 0.05 (−1.63 to 1.33)* 0.042 0.731 −0.11 (−4.72 to 1.62) −0.50 (−2.15 to 1.34)
Z score heighta −0.73 (−1.89 to 1.68) −0.21 (−2.21 to 1.18) 0.154 0.747 −0.68 (−1.75 to 1.18) −0.40 (−2.21 to 1.68)
Z score body mass indexa −0.03 (−4.72 to 1.58) 0.23 (−0.95 to 1.17) 0.213 0.642 0.04 (−1.69 to 1.41) 0.15 (−4.72 to 1.58)
SBP, mmHg 107.86 ± 7.32 122.59 ± 6.88* 0.001 0.498 112.34 ± 11.83 114.12 ± 8.22
DBP, mmHg 66.39 ± 5.49 77.04 ± 10.59* 0.001 0.272 68.93 ± 9.83 71.58 ± 8.64
HR, bpm 86.83 ± 15.001 92.27 ± 18.12 0.221 0.024* 83.92 ± 15.22 95.53 ± 16.17
Glycaemia, mg/dl 215.47 ± 90.91 204.00 ± 113.03 0.752 0.978 212.15 ± 82.62 211.21 ± 117.94
HbA1,  % 9.74 ± 1.98 11.58 ± 3.08* 0.037 0.573 10.17 ± 2.46 10.60 ± 2.67
HDL, mg/dl 54.47 ± 8.45 51.14 ± 12.22 0.333 0.782 52.80 ± 8.48 53.75 ± 12.00
LDL, mg/dl 102.22 ± 25.78 102.50 ± 38.72 0.979 0.814 103.39 ± 30.86 100.93 ± 31.63
Triglycerides, mg/dl 89.44 ± 40.29 92.53 ± 44.39 0.820 0.138 81.91 ± 38.10 101.00 ± 43.57
Total cholesterol, mg/dl 169.78 ± 39.06 177.00 ± 38.67 0.566 0.750 170.52 ± 44.92 174.35 ± 30.87
  1. SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, HR heart rate, HbA 1 glycated hemoglobin
  2. * P ≤ 0.05
  3. aData not normally distributed is presented as median, minimum and maximum values
  4. b Comparisons between sexes