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Table 2 Hemodynamic and metabolic parameters during the study

From: Exenatide infusion decreases atrial natriuretic peptide levels by reducing cardiac filling pressures in type 2 diabetes patients with decompensated congestive heart failure

Time point Baselinea 0 h 6 h P
Exenatide Placebo Exenatide Placebo
Hemodynamic
 CI (L/min) 1.8 ± 0.1 1.8 ± 0.1 1.8 ± 0.1 2.1 ± 0.1* 1.9 ± 0.1 0.003b
 RAP (mmHg) 9.0 ± 1 7.5 ± 1 8.5 ± 1 6.6 ± 1 7.9 ± 1 0.03b
 PAP (mmHg) 28 ± 2 26 ± 2 28 ± 2 26 ± 3 29 ± 2 0.08 b
 PCWP (mmHg) 17 ± 2 14.8 ± 2 16.0 ± 2 12.6 ± 2*** 17.4 ± 2 0.001b
Metabolic
 Exenatide (pmol/l) 0.6 ± 0.5 3.5 ± 3 1.9 ± 1 132 ± 11*** 1.0 ± 0.5 0.001b
 Glucose (mmol/l) 6.6 ± 0.3 6.8 ± 0.3 7.0 ± 0.3 6.0 ± 0.3 6.0 ± 0.2 0.2b
 ANP (ρg/mL) 91.1 ± 13.3 97.1 ± 12.2 83.7 ± 13.8 78.5 ± 11.1 95.3 ± 12.7* 0.04c
 ΔANP (ρg/mL) −21.9 ± 9.2 12.5 ± 10.0* 0.02c
 NT-proBNP (ng/L) 3793 ± 831 3954 ± 833 3919 ± 991 4262 ± 859 4519 ± 1182 0.4c
 ΔNT-proBNP (ng/L) 307 ± 127 600 ± 249 0.5c
 NEFA (mmol/L) 0.3 ± 0.06 0.3 ± 0.1 0.3 ± 0.1 0.6 ± 0.1* 0.5 ± 0.05 0.03c
  1. Values are mean ± standard error of the mean
  2. CI cardiac index, RAP right atrial pressure, PAP mean pulmonary arterial pressure, PCWP pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, ANP atrial natriuretic peptide, ΔANP changes in ANP levels following 6 h of infusion, NT-pro-BNP N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, ΔNT-proBNP changes in ΔNT-proBNP levels following 6 h of infusion, NEFA non-esterified fatty acids
  3. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001 for exenatide vs placebo
  4. aHemodynamic and metabolic parameters prior to the protocol (before any infusions)
  5. p b; overall p value for exenatide treatment vs. placebo over all time points (1, 3, 6 h) for every parameter, included in the model (general linear mixed model)
  6. p c; p value for exenatide treatment vs. Placebo after 6-h infusion (Wilcoxon signed-rank tests)