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Table 1 Anthropometric and laboratory characteristics of healthy subjects, NAFLD, T2DM and NAFLD + T2DM

From: The association of circulating levels of complement-C1q TNF-related protein 5 (CTRP5) with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes: a case–control study

Characteristics Healthy subjects (N = 21) NAFLD (N = 22) T2DM (N = 22) NAFLD + T2DM (N = 22) Total difference p value
Age, years 51 (48–60) 51 (48–55) 57.5 (47–60) 52 (45–57) ns
WC, cm 93.29 ± 2.14 104.95 ± 1.49 100.43 ± 2.38 109.61 ± 2.23 <0.001
Hip, cm 99.29 ± 1.23 105.32 ± 1.2 100.77 ± 1.51 107.73 ± 73 <0.001
WHR, – 0.94 ± 0.01 1.00 ± 0.01 0.99 ± 0.02 1.02 ± 0.02 <0.001
BMI, kg/m2 24.76 ± 0.80 29.18 ± 0.50 27.28 ± 0.91 30.61 ± 0.84 <0.001
FBG, mg/dL 89.46 (84.10–96.56) 95.82 (90.10–100.70) 129.95 (123.20–175.20) 155 (127.00–187.95) <0.001
Insulin, µU/mL 3.5 (2.7–4.9) 9.6 (9.2–12) 6.35 (2.2–8.9) 8.5 (6.3–10.6) <0.001
HOMA-IR, – 0.75 (0.56–1.23) 2.32 (1.89–2.89) 2.46 (0.91–3.17) 2.64 (1.99–5.51) <0.001
TG, mg/dL 114.65 (89.95–154) 143.95 (109.1–164.8) 138.7 (105.3–163.7) 165.6 (113.75–241.05) ns
TC, mg/dL 190.01 ± 6.69 201.45 ± 7.64 195.84 ± 9.67 191.42 ± 16.17 ns
HDL-C, mg/dL 54.39 ± 2.78 48.61 ± 2.16 54.22 ± 2.88 49.79 ± 3.98 ns
LDL-C, mg/dL 111.65 ± 6.41 117.73 ± 7.75 113.76 ± 7.85 109.22 ± 10.53 ns
LDL-C/HDL-C, – 2.12 ± 0.14 2.42 ± 0.15 2.13 ± 0.13 2.04 ± 0.19 ns
TC/HDL-C, – 3.65 ± 0.16 4.24 ± 0.17 3.69 ± 0.14 3.59 ± 0.30 ns
Urea nitrogen, mg/dL 28.13 ± 1.17 32.29 ± 1.90 30.88 ± 1.33 30.98 ± 2.42 ns
Creatinin, mg/dL 1.27 ± 0.04 1.29 ± 0.04 1.25 ± 0.04 1.10 ± 0.08 ns
AST, U/L 17.1 (15.2–18.3) 22.1 (18.3–30.9) 16.55 (14.6–19.00) 24.6 (21.55–28.1) <0.001
ALT, U/L 15.3 (12.55–18.4) 28.9 (22.5–44.5) 15.6 (12.7–21.6) 41.75 (32.9–52.9) <0.001
γ-GT, U/L 19.9 (16.26–23.79) 28.96 (24.3–36.1) 23.49 (19.79–36.74) 36.97 (27.79–72.65) <0.001
ALP, U/L 224.5 (202–249) 231.5 (195–278) 243 (190–316) 228.5 (186.5–271) ns
SBP, mmHg 127.65 ± 4.43 130.84 ± 4.49 136.79 ± 4.53 137.02 ± 4.40 ns
DBP, mmHg 78.15 ± 2.37 84.39 ± 3.76 79.95 ± 2.50 80.70 ± 2.10 ns
LS, kPa 2.33 ± 0.48 5.46 ± 0.37 4.77 ± 0.32 7.00 ± 0.51 <0.001
RBC, ×1012/L 4.66 ± 0.11 4.9 ± 0.09 4.96 ± 0.09 4.96 ± 0.13 ns
Platelet, ×109/L 221.05 ± 11.63 223.91 ± 10.65 224.64 ± 9.21 240.1 ± 8.27 ns
APRI, – 0.22 (0.15–0.25) 0.28 (0.19–0.41) 0.18 (0.15–0.21) 0.24 (0.22–0.30) <0.05
WBC, ×109/L 5.5 (5.2–6.5) 5.5 (5.1–6.9) 6.6 (5.7–7.6) 6.65 (5.55–7.55) ns
Hemoglobin, g/dl 14 (12–15) 14 (14–15) 14.5 (12–16) 14 (12–15.5) ns
RDW, % 14 (14–15) 14 (14–14) 14.5 (14–15) 14 (14–15) ns
MCV, fL 87 (86–89) 85 (83–88) 84.5 (82–88) 82 (79–89) ns
  1. Continuous variables with normal and non-normal distribution were described as mean ± SEM and median (IQR), respectively
  2. NAFLD nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, T2DM type 2 diabetes mellitus, n number, WC waist circumference, WHR waist-to-hip ratio, BMI body mass index, FBG fasting blood glucose, HOMA-IR homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, TG triglycerides, TC total cholesterol, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, ALT alanine amino transferase, AST aspartate amino transferase, ɤ-GT gamma glutamyl transferase, ALP alkaline phosphatase, LS liver stiffness, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, RBC red blood cell, WBC white blood cell, MCV mean corpuscular volume, RDW red cell distribution width, APRI aspartate amino transferase to platelet ratio index, ns non-significant