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Fig. 2 | Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome

Fig. 2

From: Pioglitazone alters monocyte populations and stimulates recent thymic emigrants in the BBDZR/Wor type 2 diabetes rat model

Fig. 2

Reduced inflammatory phenotype in pio-treated diabetic BBDZR/Wor rats. Splenocytes from all four groups were cultured for 6 h ex vivo in the presence of Phorbol 12-myristate 13 acetate (PMA) at a concentration of 100 ng/mL. Golgi Plug was added for the last 4 h of treatment to inhibit protein transport. Cells were harvested and analyzed for different cytokines. Gates were established by using respective anti-cytokine isotype control. Upper panels are representative from n = 3 and lower panels (bar graphs) represent % ± SD. a Results for CD3+TNF-α-producers (# p < 0.005, p < 0.05); b CD3+IL-1β-producers (* p < 0.05); and c CD3+IL-4 and total IL-4 producers (# p < 0.0005, *p < 0.005, p < 0.05)

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