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Table 4 Adjusted mean differences on the association between DMP status/guideline care and accumulated LYs/QALYs over the 4-year follow-up period

From: The effectiveness of German disease management programs (DMPs) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease: results from an observational longitudinal study

Treatment status in 2006 Linear regression model Linear regression model
Difference in accumulated LYsa Difference in accumulated QALYsb
Adj. mean Beta (95 % CI) Adj. mean Beta (95 % CI)
DMP (CHD or DM)
 No 3.64 Ref.   2.95 Ref.  
 Yes 3.78 0.15 (−0.07 to 0.37) 3.01 0.06 (−0.15 to 0.26)
Guideline carec
 No 3.51 Ref.   2.83 Ref.  
 Yes 3.91 0.40 (0.21 to 0.60) 3.11 0.28 (0.10 to 0.45)
DMP-CHD (only)
 No 3.65 Ref.   2.92 Ref.  
 Yes 3.86 0.21 (0.02 to 0.40) 3.08 0.16 (0.00 to 0.33)
DMP-DM (only)
 No 3.70 Ref.   2.98 Ref.  
 Yes 3.78 0.08 (−0.11 to 0.28) 3.00 0.02 (−0.16 to 0.20)
  1. DMP disease management program, CHD coronary heart disease, DM diabetes mellitus, LYs (unadjusted) life years, QALYs quality adjusted life years
  2. aModels adjusted for age, sex, education, smoking status, weight status, treatment status, number of reinfarctions, and diabetes duration
  3. bModels adjusted for (a) and QoL at baseline
  4. cCounseling on two out of the three lifestyle topics (smoking, diet, exercise) and intake of a platelet aggregation inhibitor and a statin and either renin–angiotensin inhibitors or a beta blocker