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Table 3 Models selected for all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in European Americans with type 2 diabetes

From: Predictors of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in type 2 diabetes: Diabetes Heart Study

Trait Hazard Ratio 95 % Hazard Ratio Confidence Interval p-value
All-cause mortality     
Age 1.72 1.46 2.02 6.46 × 10−11
Female Sex 0.93 0.71 1.21 0.565
Urine Albumin:creatinine Ratio 1.37 1.23 1.53 2.23 × 10−8
Coronary Artery Calcified Plaque 1.48 1.20 1.81 2.03 × 10−4
Current Smoking 1.79 1.30 2.46 3.38 × 10−4
Insulin Use 1.50 1.16 1.93 0.002
Educational Attainment 0.76 0.65 0.91 0.002
CVD mortality     
Age 1.57 1.18 2.08 0.002
Female Sex 0.94 0.63 1.40 0.756
Urine Albumin:creatinine Ratio 1.51 1.31 1.74 1.99 × 10−8
Coronary Artery Calcified Plaque 1.71 1.23 2.38 0.001
Triglycerides 1.28 1.05 1.56 0.017
History of Cardiovascular Disease 1.59 1.03 2.46 0.036
  1. Models were selected using backward elimination, forward selection, and stepwise selection. Age and sex were forced into all models. Hazards ratios (HRs) are for a one standard deviation change in the predictor (continuous variables) or change in group assignment (dichotomous variables). For medication use HRs, the HRs are for risk of mortality among those individuals using the given medication class