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Table 2 Associations of demographic and clinical factors with all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality

From: Predictors of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in type 2 diabetes: Diabetes Heart Study

  All-cause Mortality CVD mortality
Trait HR 95 % HR CI p-value n HR 95 % HR CI p-value n
Age (years) 1.86 1.62 2.13 <1 × 10−16 1022 1.74 1.41 2.13 1.40 × 10−7 1004
Female Sex (%) 0.68 0.54 0.85 8.83 × 10−4 1022 0.58 0.41 0.82 0.002 1004
Current Smoking (%) 1.44 1.11 1.88 0.006 1018 1.04 0.66 1.63 0.866 1000
Past Smoking (%) 0.99 0.79 1.23 0.896 1018 1.13 0.82 1.57 0.452 1000
History of Cardiovascular Disease (%) 1.91 1.52 2.41 3.86 × 10−8 1013 3.25 2.25 4.69 3.21 × 10−10 995
Educational attainment (3 levels) 0.68 0.58 0.81 1.73 × 10−5 1011 0.74 0.58 0.95 0.02 993
dy Mass Index (kg/m2) 0.87 0.77 0.99 0.033 1022 0.89 0.74 1.07 0.225 1004
Waist Hip Ratio 1.16 1.02 1.32 0.029 1012 1.2 1 1.45 0.049 994
Glucose (mg/dL) 1.04 0.92 1.17 0.512 1020 1.16 0.98 1.38 0.089 1002
Glycated Hemoglobin (%) 1.09 0.97 1.22 0.169 1016 1.23 1.06 1.43 0.008 998
Diabetes duration (years) 1.54 1.36 1.74 5.62 × 10−12 1005 1.7 1.41 2.04 2.22 × 10−8 987
Coronary Artery Calcified Plaque (mass score) 2.01 1.7 2.37 1.11 × 10−16 968 2.47 1.91 3.21 8.48 × 10−12 952
Carotid Intima Media Thickness (mm) 1.38 1.25 1.53 5.20 × 10−10 928 1.42 1.24 1.63 7.32 × 10−7 911
Total Cholesterol (mg/dL) 1.01 0.91 1.13 0.796 1003 1 0.86 1.17 1 986
HDL (mg/dL) 0.93 0.82 1.05 0.228 1003 0.87 0.72 1.04 0.133 986
Triglycerides (mg/dL) 1.01 0.9 1.14 0.841 1003 1.12 0.95 1.33 0.172 986
LDL (mg/dL) 1.05 0.94 1.17 0.413 928 0.93 0.79 1.1 0.396 912
Pulse Pressure (mmHg) 1.3 1.16 1.46 8.24 × 10−6 1019 1.35 1.13 1.61 7.71 × 10−4 1001
Mean Arterial Pressure (mmHg) 0.9 0.79 1.04 0.149 1019 0.95 0.76 1.2 0.685 1001
Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (ml/min/1.73 m2) 0.63 0.55 0.72 3.60 × 10−11 1021 0.63 0.51 0.78 2.75 × 10−5 1003
Urine Albumin:creatinine Ratio (mg/g) 1.56 1.42 1.72 <1 × 10−16 1000 1.76 1.54 2.01 <1 × 10−16 982
QT Interval (ms) 1.02 0.91 1.16 0.709 985 1.13 0.93 1.38 0.212 968
High Blood Pressure Medications (%) 1.72 1.28 2.3 2.63 × 10−4 1022 2.28 1.41 3.69 7.86 × 10−4 1004
Statin Use (%) 0.88 0.7 1.11 0.293 1020 1.02 0.72 1.46 0.91 1002
Oral Hypoglycemic Medications (%) 1.04 0.79 1.38 0.769 1022 1.02 0.67 1.54 0.942 1004
Insulin Use (%) 1.71 1.35 2.17 8.51 × 10−6 1022 1.84 1.32 2.58 3.55 × 10−4 1004
  1. Relationships assessed using univariate Cox proportional hazards models. Hazards ratios (HRs) are for a one standard deviation change in the predictor (continuous variables) or change in group assignment (dichotomous variables). For medication use HRs, the HRs are for risk of mortality among those individuals using the given medication class. CI, Confidence Interval