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Table 2 Demographic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics of participants by recency of dilated eye examination

From: Feasibility and efficacy of diabetic retinopathy screening among youth with diabetes in a pediatric endocrinology clinic: a cross-sectional study

  Total (N = 236) Eye exam ≤ 12 months (N = 156) Eye exam > 12 months (N = 47) Never (N = 33) P-value
Demographics
Age, years, mean (standard deviation, SD) 14.1 (2.69) 14.1 (2.58) 14.9 (2.7) 12.8 (2.8) 0.142
 Minimum - maximum 8.0-18.9 8.0-18.9 9.4-18.9 8.3-18.4  
Gender, N (%)
 Male 101 (42.8) 68 (43.6) 22 (46.8) 11 (33.3) 0.459
 Female 135 (57.2) 88 (56.4) 25 (53.2) 22 (66.7)  
Race, N (%)
 White, non-Hispanic origin 158 (67.0) 109 (69.9) 25 (59.6) 21 (63.6) 0.225
 African American 70 (29.7) 43 (27.6) 17 (36.2) 10 (30.3)  
 Hispanic 5 (2.1) 3 (1.9) 0 (0) 2 (6.1)  
 Native American 2 (0.9) 1 (0.6) 1 (2.1) 0 (0)  
 Asian 1 (0.4) 0 (0) 1 (2.1) 0 (0)  
Clinical characteristics
Type, n (%)      0.824
 Type 1 202 (85.6) 135 (86.6) 39 (83.0) 28 (84.8)  
 Type 2 34 (14.4) 21 (13.5) 8 (17.0) 5 (16.0)  
Age at diabetes diagnosis, years, mean (SD) 8.6 (3.9) 8.2 (4.0) 9.6 (4.0) 9.2 (3.5) 0.053
Duration of diabetes diagnosis, years, mean (SD) 5.5 (3.5) 5.9 (3.4) 5.4 (4.0) 3.6 (2.5) 0.001
Laboratory characteristics
HbA1c high for agea, n (%) 169 (71.6) 115 (73.7) 32 (68.1) 22 (66.7) 0.599
Cholesterolb, n (%)
 >75th percentile 86 (34.4) 51 (32.7) 26 (55.3) 9 (27.3) 0.009
LDLb, n (%)
 >75th percentile 53 (22.5) 33 (21.2) 16 (34.0) 4 (12.1) 0.055
HDLb, n (%)
 >75th percentile 191 (80.9) 122 (78.2) 44 (93.6) 25 (75.8) 0.046
Triglyceridesb, n (%)
 >75th percentile 133 (56.4) 85 (54.5) 33 (70.2) 15 (45.5) 0.064
Urine Albuminc n (%)      0.963
 Normal (<30 mg/L) 213 (90.3) 141 (90.4) 42 (89.4) 30 (90.9)  
 Microalbuminuria (30–299 mg/L) 22 (9.3) 14 ( 9.0) 5 (10.6) 3 (9.1)  
 Macroalbuminuria (≥300 mg/L) 1 (0.4) 1 (0.6) 0 (0) 0 (0)  
  1. aHbA1c is high if ≥ 8.5 % (69 mmol/mol) for < 6 years of age; ≥ 8.0 % (64 mmol/mol) for 6 – 12 years of age; ≥ 7.5 % (58 mmol/mol) for 13 – 19 years of age [2]
  2. bPercentile categories are based from Gender and Age specific norms [19]
  3. cUrine albumin was reported in mg/L; normal was < 30 mg/L, microalbuminuria was defined as ≥ 30 and < 300 mg/L, and macroalbuminuria was defined as ≥ 300 mg/L [20]