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Table 1 Co-morbid depression (BDI score ≥ 14) and demographic, clinical, and behavior characteristics by depression groups

From: Prevalence and influencing factors of co-morbid depression in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a General Hospital based study

Variables Total sample (n) No depression n(%) Depression n(%) Significance
n(%) 412 270(65.53) 142(34.47)  
Demographic factors     
Men 207(50.24) 134(49.63) 73(51.41) 2 = 0.12;P = 0.73)
Female 205 (49.76) 136(66.3) 69(33.7)  
Age (years)     
  <40 26(6.31) 9(3.33) 17(11.97) 2 = 21.51; P = 0.00)
  40–59 165(40.05) 126(46.67) 39(27.46)
  ≥60 221(53.64) 135(50.00) 86(60.56)
High school or less 218(52.91) 133(49.26) 85(59.86) 2 = 4.20; P = 0.04)
Being ingle 123(29.85) 48(17.78) 75(52.82) 2 = 54.55; P = 0.00)
Employment status     
  Employed 138(33.50) 94(34.81) 44(30.99) 2 = 6.09; P = 0.048)
  Unemployed 18(4.37) 7(2.59) 11(7.75)
  Retired 256(62.14) 169(62.59) 87(61.27)
Insurance     
  GIS 130(31.55) 99(36.67) 31(21.83) 2 = 22.88; P = 0.00)
  UEMI 112(27.18) 68(25.19) 44(30.99)
  URMI 102(24.76) 60(22.22) 42(29.58)
  NCMS 17(4.13) 16(5.93) 1(0.70)
  Other insurance 19(4.61) 7(2.59) 12(8.45)
  None insurance 32(7.77) 20(7.41) 12(8.45)
Social support 31.35 ± 5.50 33.45 ± 4.53 27.35 ± 4.94 (t = 12.60; P = 0.00)
Clinical factors     
HbA1c level     
  <7.00 % 209(50.73) 152(56.30) 57(40.14) 2 = 9.72; P = 0.002)
  ≥7.00 % 203(49.27) 118(43.70) 85(59.86)
BMI(kg/m2)     
  <25 215(52.18) 142(52.59) 73(51.41) 2 = 0.05; P = 0.0819)
  ≥25 197(47.82) 128(47.41) 69(48.59)
History of diabetes 190(46.12) 144(53.33) 46(32.39) 2 = 16.42; P = 0.00)
Duration of diabetes in years 8.93 ± 6.51 8.20 ± 5.79 10.32 ± 7.52 (t = −3.17; P = 0.002)
Diabetes complications 2.39 ± 1.90 2.06 ± 1.58 3.01 ± 2.28 (t = −4.98; P = 0.00)
Oral agents 227(55.10) 148(55.64) 79(54.11) 2 = 0.137; P = 0.76)
Insulin 185(44.90) 118(44.36) 67(45.89)  
Behavior factors     
Smoking currently 112(27.18) 80(29.63) 32(22.54) 2 = 2.37; P = 0.12)
Drinking currently 198(48.06) 143(52.96) 55(38.73) 2 = 7.55; P = 0.006)
Excise times per week 1.67 ± 2.78 2.00 ± 2.79 1.04 ± 2.67 (t = 3.35; P = 0.00)
Sleeping hours per day 5.95 ± 2.82 6.38 ± 1.22 5.13 ± 4.39 (t = 4.38; P = 0.00)