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Table 1 General characteristics of the study sample

From: Prospective evaluation of glutamine and phospholipids levels in first degree relatives of patients with Type 1 Diabetes from a multiethnic population

  Basal Prospective Controls p value
FDR FDR  
(n = 30) (n = 30) (n = 20)
Age (years) 17.96 17.36 25.60 0.108
(mean ± SD) ±9.24 ±8.68 ±9.65
Gender [n (%)]     
Female 15 (50) 15 (50) 9 (45) 0.184
Etnicity[n (%)]     
Whites 15 (50) 15 (50) 8 (40) 0.272
Non-whites 15 (50) 15 (50) 12 (60)  
GADA [n (%)] 2 (7) 2 (7) 2 (10) 0.887
IA2A [n (%)] 2 (7) 1 (3) 0 ----
IAA [n (%)] 0 1 (3) 0 ----
ZnT8A [n (%)] 1 (3) 1 (3) 0 0.002
Glutamine (mM) (mean ± SD) 1.45 ± 0.69 1.34 ± 0.20 1.55 ± 0.27 0.075
Phospholipids (μm) (mean ± SD) 505.20 ± 194.89 468.56 ± 219.46 640.00 ± 259.20 0.028
  1. Basal FDR = sample of the basal period; Prospective FDR = sample of the prospective period
  2. Controls = non-diabetic individuals; SD = standard deviation; GADA = Glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibody; IA2A = Insulinoma-associated antigen-2 autoantibody; IAA = autoantibody against insulin; ZnT8A = Zinc transporter 8 autoantibody