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Table 1 Patient characteristic according to presence or absence of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and hyperandrogenemia (HA)

From: The association between hyperandrogenemia and the metabolic syndrome in morbidly obese women

  PCOS absent   PCOS present  
HA present HA absent P value HA present HA absent P value
N 616 972 - 230 82 -
Age, yrs 35 (8) 39 (7) <0.001 33 (8) 36 (8) 0.001
BMI, kg/m2 44.4 (5.8) 43.2 (5.9) <0.001 44.8 (6.4) 42.8 (6.2) 0.015
Weight, kg 124 (18) 121 (18) <0.001 126 (20) 119 (19) 0.016
Waist circumference, cm 127 (13) 123 (13) <0.001 127 (14) 123 (13) 0.025
WHR 0.94 (0.09) 0.92 (0.08) <0.001 0.94 (0.08) 0.93 (0.10) 0.384
Metabolic syndrome 370 (60 %) 517 (53 %) 0.008 157 (68 %) 45 (55 %) 0.032
-waist ≥ 80 cm 611 (100 %) 963 (100 %) 1.000 228 (100 %) 82 (100 %) -
-lipids 457 (74 %) 633 (65 %) <0.001 186 (81 %) 51 (62 %) 0.001
triglycerides ≥1.7 mmol/L 285 (46 %) 398 (41 %) 0.037 116 (50 %) 32 (39 %) 0.094
HDL-cholesterol <1.30 mmol/L 391 (64 %) 469 (49 %) <0.001 160 (70 %) 41 (50 %) 0.002
lipid lowering medication 37 (6 %) 66 (7 %) 0.601 18 (8 %) 8 (10 %) 0.642
-raised blood pressure 320 (52 %) 570 (59 %) 0.007 131 (57 %) 50 (61 %) 0.603
Systolic blood pressure ≥130, mmHg 233 (38 %) 386 (40 %) 0.428 106 (47 %) 36 (44 %) 0.700
Diastolic blood pressure ≥ 85, mmHg 195 (32 %) 311 (32 %) 0.868 74 (33 %) 28 (34 %) 0.785
Blood pressure lowering medication 110 (18 %) 246 (25 %) 0.001 44 (19 %) 17 (21 %) 0.748
-fasting plasma glucose ≥ 5.6 mmol/L OR diabetes mellitus 192 (31 %) 270 (28 %) 0.157 77 (34 %) 23 (28 %) 0.410
Type 2 diabetes 112 (18 %) 143 (15 %) 0.069 42 (18 %) 12 (15 %) 0.501
Cholelithiasis 59 (10 %) 114 (12 %) 0.187 18 (8 %) 7 (9 %) 0.816
Family history diabetes 195 (32 %) 300 (31 %) 0.781 87 (38 %) 30 (37 %) 0.895
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg 125 (15) 126 (14) 0.290 127 (14) 128 (16) 0.806
Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg 80 (10) 80 (10) 0.394 80 (10) 80 (10) 0.516
Uric acid, μmol/L 345 (69) 325 (69) <0.001 358 (69) 325 (72) <0.001
PTH, pmol/L 6.9 (2.9) 7.2 (3.3) 0.045 6.7 (3.0) 7.3 (2.9) 0.147
Vitamin D 25-OH, nmol/L 54 (21) 57 (21) 0.006 49 (19) 50 (18) 0.840
Magnesium 0.84 (0.07) 0.85 (0.07) 0.178 0.83 (0.07) 0.83 (0.07) 0.978
Anxiety or depression 290 (47 %) 446 (46 %) 0.643 122 (53 %) 38 (46 %) 0.306
Insulin, pmol/L 129 (95) 107 (83) <0.001 142 (75) 118 (70) 0.012
HOMA IR, (mmol/l * pmol/L / 135) 5.7 (6.0) 4.5 (4.4) <0.001 6.0 (3.9) 4.8 (3.4) 0.017
≥1 hour physical activity/week 329 (64 %) 549 (67 %) 0.238 126 (68 %) 44 (60 %) 0.246
≥1 hour vigorous physical activity/week 192 (37 %) 356 (43 %) 0.026 73 (40 %) 32 (44 %) 0.574
Use of estrogens or gestagen medication 62 (10 %) 112 (12 %) 0.410 15 (7 %) 20 (24 %) <0.001
Smoke (current or former/never) 368 (60 %) 561 (58 %) 0.432 147 (64 %) 38 (46 %) 0.006
SHBG, nmol/L 22.3 (9.2) 44.3 (29.2) <0.001 20.8 (8.1) 46.6 (30.3) <0.001
Total testosterone, nmol/L 1.90 (0.71) 1.16 (0.55) <0.001 2.3 (1.2) 1.3 (0.5) <0.001
Estimated free testosterone, nmol/L 0.039 (0.085) 0.003 (0.005) <0.001 0.056 (0.140) 0.003 (0.005) 0.001
FTI 1.3 (3.1) 0.3 (0.1) <0.001 1.7 (5.2) 0.3 (0.1) 0.017
  1. BMI; body mass index. WHR; waist hip ratio. PTH; parathyroid hormone. PCOS; polycystic ovarian syndrome. HOMA IR; Homeostasis Model Assessment - Insulin Resistance. FTI; free testosterone index, FTI > 0.6; Hyperandrogenemia (HA). SHBG; sex hormone binding globulin