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Table 4 Clinical characteristics of non-obese GDM cases and their controls, and obese GDM cases and their controls

From: The risk of metabolic syndrome after gestational diabetes mellitus – a hospital-based cohort study

  GDM cases Controls Overall
  BMI ≥ 27 BMI < 27 BMI ≥ 27 BMI < 27 p value
(n = 65) (n = 55) (n = 57) (n = 63)  
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg* 126.6 ± 12.3 117.7 ± 11.2 122.8 ± 12.4 116.1 ± 9.1 < 0.001
Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg* 76.1 ± 9.6 70.5 ± 9.6 74.6 ± 8.1 69.1 ± 8.5 < 0.001
Mean peripheral pressure, mmHg* 94.0 ± 10.7 87.0 ± 8.4 91.5 ± 9.3 85.3 ± 8.8 < 0.001
Heart rate, beats per minute 66.6 ± 8.9 65.2 ± 9.3 65.2 ± 9.0 62.6 ± 10.1 NS
MetS, n (%) 15 (23.1 %) 4 (3.3 %) 8 (14.0 %) 0 (0 %) < 0.001
- Waist circumference > 88 cm, n (%) 62 (95.4 %) 27 (49.1 %) 53 (93.0 %) 20 (31.7 %) < 0.001
- Blood pressure ≥ 130/85 mmHg, n (%) 27 (41.5 %) 8 (14.5 %) 19 (33.3 %) 6 (9.5 %) < 0.001
- HDL cholesterol < 1.30 mmol/L, n (%) 14 (21.5 %) 9 (16.4 %) 14 (24.6 %) 8 (12.7 %) NS
- Triglycerides ≥ 1.7 mmol/L, n (%) 9 (13.8 %) 3 (5.5 %) 4 (7.0 %) 1 (1.6 %) NS (0.050)
- Glucose ≥ 6.1 mmol/L or diabetes, n (%) 11 (16.9 %) 7 (12.7%) 1 (1.8 %) 3 (4.8 %) 0.012
  1. Metabolic syndrome and separate variables defined by NCEP.
  2. Data are presented as mean ± SD if not mentioned otherwise.
  3. *Differences between non-obese GDM cases and their controls, and obese GDM cases and their controls were non-significant; differences in other subgroup comparisons were significant.