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Table 2 Clinical characteristics in the GDM and control groups

From: The risk of metabolic syndrome after gestational diabetes mellitus – a hospital-based cohort study

  GDM Control p value
(n = 120) (n = 120)
Age at follow-up, years 35.8 ± 4.4 35.9 ± 4.6 NS
Family history of    
- Coronary heart disease, n (%) 20 (16.7%) 23 (19.2%) NS
- Cerebrovascular disease, n (%) 15 (12.5%) 5 (4.2%) 0.033
- Diabetes mellitus, n (%) 32 (26.7%) 27 (22.5%) NS
Diagnosed disorder, n (%) 52 (43.3%) 45 (37.5%) NS
- Hypertension, n (%) 3 (2.5%) 5 (4.2%) NS
- Type 1 diabetes mellitus, n (%) 2 (1.7%) 0 (0%) NS
- Type 2 diabetes mellitus, n (%) 1 (0.8%) 0 (0%) NS
- Polycystic ovary syndrome, n (%) 8 (6.7%) 1 (0.8%) 0.036
Permanent medication for any chronic disease, n (%) 43 (35.8%) 35 (29.2%) NS
Contraception, n (%) 99 (82.5%) 92 (76.7%) NS
Smoking status    0.018
- Current, n (%) 24 (20.0%) 12 (10%)  
- Former, n (%) 45 (37.5%) 37 (30.8%)  
- Never, n (%) 51 (42.5%) 71 (59.2%)  
BMI, kg/m2 28.3 ± 5.0 27.5 ± 5.4 NS (0.069)
Waist circumference, cm 96.8 ± 13.0 92.5 ± 12.6 0.009
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg 122.4 ± 12.5 119.0 ± 11.5 0.034
Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg 73.5 ± 9.0 71.8 ± 8.7 NS
Heart rate, beats per minute 65.9 ± 9.1 63.8 ± 9.6 0.017
MetS, n (%) 19 (15.8%) 8 (6.7%) 0.039
- Waist circumference > 88 cm, n (%) 89 (74.2%) 73 (60.8%) 0.038
- Blood pressure ≥ 130/85 mmHg, n (%) 35 (29.2%) 25 (20.8%) NS
- HDL cholesterol < 1.30 mmol/L, n (%) 23 (19.2%) 22 (18.3%) NS
- Triglycerides ≥ 1.7 mmol/L, n (%) 12 (10.0%) 5 (4.2%) NS (0.084)
- Glucose ≥ 6.1 mmol/L or diabetes, n (%) 18 (15.0%) 4 (3.3%) 0.002
  1. Data are presented as mean ± SD if not mentioned otherwise. Metabolic syndrome and separate variables defined by NCEP.