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Table 3 In-utero exposure to persistent organic pollutants and birth weight

From: Persistent organic pollutants as risk factors for type 2 diabetes

Reference Sample size Exposure type Compound used Direction of the association Confounders
[67] 2246 Occupational Not stated No association Maternal BMI, height, parity, smoking during pregnancy, infant sex
[56] 1322 singleton Background CB-153 and p,p’ -DDE Negative Maternal age, pre-pregnancy BMI, education, marital status, smoking status, alcohol drinking, parity and newborn’s sex
[55] 286 women Background PBDEs Negative Maternal age, education, marital status, parity, BMI, country of birth, alcohol and drug use during pregnancy and infant sex
[57] 494 Background DDT, DDE, HCB and PCBs Negative Age, height, pregnancy weight gain, pre-pregnancy BMI, country of origin, residence, parity, education, employment during pregnancy, socioeconomic status
[68] 247 children Occupational Not stated Negative Maternal smoking, social class and gestational age
[59] 503 women Background Not stated No association Race, education, age, gestational age at delivery and Child’s sex
[58] 413 Background PCBs and PBDEs Positive with PCB and negative with PBDEs Maternal age, pre-pregnancy BMI, weight gain during pregnancy, education, smoking during pregnancy and sex of the child
[69] 325 Not stated 14 OC pesticides, 7 PCBs and 14 PBDEs Negative Age, pre-pregnancy BMI, educational level, and fish consumption
  1. Organochlorine (OC) pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), 2,2,4,4,5,5-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153), 2,2′-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (p,p′-DDE), di-chlorodiphenyl-trichloro-ethane (DDT), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), body mass index (BMI).