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Table 2 Longitudinal studies of the association of POP with diabetes risk

From: Persistent organic pollutants as risk factors for type 2 diabetes

Reference Location Population/setting Mean Age (year) Diagnostic criteria of diabetes Confounders Number of participants Number of diabetic participants Proportion of men Duration of follow-up (years) Compounds measured Compounds with statistical significant difference
PCBs Dioxins OC pesticides Others
[15] USA Michigan PBB cohort ≥ 20 Self-reported physician-diagnosed diabetes, anti-diabetic medication Age, body mass index, smoking, and alcohol consumption 1384 180 49.7 25 PBB, PCB PCB in women Incidence Density Ratio [IDR = 2.33; (95% CI 1.25– 4.34)]    
[17] USA Veterans of Operation Ranch Hand   medical diagnosis or 2-hour postprandial glucose ≥200 mg/dL BMI, smoking history, family history of diabetes 3049 439 men 100 10 TCDD   TCDDRR = 1.32, p = 0.04   
[10] Sweden WHILA cohort (1995 – 2000) 54.5 Baseline OGTT Age, calendar year, BMI, heredity, country of birth, education, smoking, alcohol intake, hormone Replacement therapy, physical activity 742 371 women 0.0 10 PCB-153, p,p ′ -DDE CB-153 OR = 1.6 (95% 0.61-4.0)   p,p ′ -DDE OR = 5.5 (95% CI 1.2-25)  
[12] USA Cross-section of Great Lakes sport fish consumers (1992, follow-up 2004 – 2005) 50.5 Self-reported physician-diagnosed diabetes, Age, BMI, sex, serum lipids, smoking, alcohol use, all fish meals in the last year 471 36 59.2 10 PCB 74, 99, 118, 146, 180, 194, 201, 206, 132/153, 138/163, 170/190, 182/187, 196/20, DDE    DDE RR = 2.01 (95% CI 1.20–3.66)  
[31] USA CARDIA cohort study (1985 – 1986; follow up: 1987 – 2006) 24 Use of glucose-lowering medications Age, sex, BMI, race 180 90 38.4 18 OC pesticides (9), PCBs (35), PBDEs (1), PBB (1) Highly chlorinated PCBs OR = 2.8 (95% CI1.1–7.0)   Trans Nonachlor OR = 4.8 (95% CI1.7–13.7) PBB-153 OR = 3.0 (95% CI1.1–8.1)
[11] Sweden General population of Uppsala 70 fasting blood glucose ≥6.2 mmol/L or the use of insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents sex, BMI, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and total lipids 725 36 48.3 5 PCB74, 99,105, 118, 138, 153, 156, 157, 170, 180, 189, 194, 206, 209, p,p’- DDE, Trans –nonachlor, Hexa-chloro benzene, brominated diphenyl ether 47, dioxin PCB74, 99,105, 118, 138, 153, 156, 157, 170, 180, 189, 194, 206, 209 OR = 7.5 (95% CI1.4 – 38.8)   DDE, Trans nonachlor and Hexa-chloro benzene, OR = 3.4 (95% CI1.0 – 11.7)  
[14] USA Nurses’ Health Study. 42.5 Self-reported diagnosed diabetes, and/or fasting glucose ≥ 126 mg/dL Age, BMI, smoking status, alcohol intake, physical activity and family history of diabetes 1,095 women 48 0.0 18 PCBs, DDT, DDE and HCB    HCB OR = 3.59 (95% CI 1.49-8.64)  
  1. 2,2,4,4,5,5-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153), 2,2′-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (p,p′-DDE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pentabromo-diphenylether (PBDEs), hexabromophenyl (PBB) tetrachlorodibenzo para dioxine (TCDD), di-chlorodiphenyl-trichloro-ethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB); body mass index (BMI), oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT).