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Table 1 Baseline characteristics according to groups

From: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with coronary artery calcium score in diabetes patients with higher HbA1c

  Control (n = 127) NAFLD (n = 86) P -value
Age, years old, median (range) 58 (36–80) 58 (38–75) 0.197
Male sex, n (%) 110 (86.6%) 74 (86.0%) 0.906
Hypertension, n (%) 61 (48.0%) 57 (66.3%) 0.009
Smoking, n (%)    0.298
  Current or ex-smoker 82 (64.6%) 61 (70.9%)  
  Unknown 11 (8.7%) 3 (3.5%)  
Exercise, n (%)    0.402
  Regular exercise 21 (16.5%) 20 (23.3%)  
  Unknown 35 (27.6%) 19 (22.1%)  
Body mass index, kg/m2, median (range) 24.1 (18.5-29.6) 26.2 (19.2-36.5) <0.001
Waist circumference, cm, median (range) 87.5 (69.5-107) 92 (72.5-115) <0.001
Metabolic syndrome, n (%) 45 (36.6%) 59 (68.6%) <0.001
HbA1c, %, median (range) 6.60 (5.8-10.2) 6.8 (5.7-10.6) 0.166
HbA1c ≥ 7%, n (%) 45 (35.4%) 37 (43.0%) 0.264
Fasting glucose, mg/dL, median (range) 130 (84–252) 138 (84–307) 0.013
LDL cholesterol, mg/dL, median (range) 117.5 (58–268) 125.5 (51–220) 0.453
HDL cholesterol, mg/dL, median (range) 50 (29–89) 48 (32–67) <0.001
Triglyceride, mg/dL, median (range) 92 (30–529) 135.5 (41–450) <0.001
ALT, IU/L, median (range) 22 (8–64) 33 (11–161) <0.001
AST, IU/L, median (range) 24 (11–112) 26.5 (13–202) 0.062
GGT, IU/L, median (range) 28.0 (8–266) 38.0 (12–243) 0.016
Uric acid, median (range) 5.7 (3–9.6) 5.8 (3.1-8.7) 0.253
CACS, median (range) 11.3 (0–2443.7) 44.2 (0–1891.7) 0.577
  1. Abbreviations: NAFLD Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, AST aspartate aminotransferase, ALT alanine aminotransferase, GGT gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase.