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Table 1 Comparison between clinical and biochemical data of obese children and adolescents based on the presence of metabolic syndrome and the correlation of anthropometric and metabolic variables with BMI z-score defined according to CDC or WHO criteria

From: Comparison between CDC and WHO BMI z-score and their relation with metabolic risk markers in Northern Portuguese obese adolescents

     Correlation with BMI z-score 1)
  Without MS With MS P 2) WHO CDC
Number of participants (%) 185 (75.2) 61 (24.8) - - -
Females, n (%) 97 (52.4) 25 (41.0) 0.141 - -
Pubertal Stage (pre-pub (%))3) 30 (16.2) 8 (13.1) 0.684 - -
Age (years) 12.7 ± 1.8 13.4 ± 2.1 0.017 0.057 0.122
Height (cm) 158.5 ± 8.9 162.8 ± 9.9 0.002 0.189** 0.277**
Weight (kg) 78.0 (68.0-89.0) 90.2 (76.0-113.5) <0.001 0.673** 0.726**
BMI (kg/m2) 30.55 (28.15-34.08) 34.52 (30.20-39.14) <0.001 0.848** 0.865**
BMI z-score (CDC) 2.20 ± 0.29 2.43 ± 0.31 <0.001 0.933** -
BMI z-score (WHO) 3.00 ± 0.62 3.51 ± 0.86 <0.001 - 0.933**
Waist circumference (cm) 99.0 (91.8-106.5) 105.0 (96.5-118.0) <0.001 0.736** 0.778**
Waist / Height 0.630 ± 0.066 0.668 ± 0.081 0.002 0.794** 0.783**
Blood pressure      
Systolic (mmHg)4) 116 ± 12 135 ± 13 <0.001 0.323** 0.360**
Diastolic (mmHg)4) 63 ± 8 70 ± 12 0.001 0.267** 0.218**
Lipid profile      
TG (mg/dl) 71.0 (53.1-100.6) 126.7 (81.5-181.5) <0.001 0.186** 0.185**
HDLc (mg/dl) 43.0 (38.3-49.0) 35.0 (32.0-38.4) <0.001 −0.215** −0.223**
TC (mg/dl) 150.8 (134.5-174.0) 164.0 (142.0-189.2) 0.038 0.105 0.084
LDLc (mg/dl) 92.0 (76.0-109.8) 101.0 (83.5-119.4) 0.055 0.145* 0.126*
Glucose metabolism      
Glucose (mg/dl) 83.0 (77.0-89.6) 88.0 (80.0-93.8) 0.005 0.043 0.046
Insulin (μU/ml) 15.9 (12.2-22.1) 23.3 (14.6-33.3) <0.001 0.421** 0.440**
HOMA-IR 3.18 (2.43-4.52) 4.94 (3.34-7.06) <0.001 0.410** 0.429**
Inflammatory mediator      
CRP (mg/l)5) 1.61 (0.84-4.05) 2.30 (1.00-4.59) 0.072 0.326** 0.302**
  1. *, P < 0.05; **, P < 0.001; 1)Pearson correlations; 2)With MS vs. Without MS groups; 3)Pre-pubertal defined as Tanner stage = 1; 4)With MS n = 45, without MS n = 172; 5)With MS n = 60, without MS, n = 180; BMI, body mass index; CDC, Center for Disease Control and Prevention; CRP, c-reactive protein; HDLc, high density lipoprotein cholesterol; HOMA-IR, homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance; LDLc, low density lipoprotein cholesterol; MS, metabolic syndrome; pre-pub, pre-pubertal; TC, total cholesterol; TG, triglycerides; WHO, World Health Organization.