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Table 2 Pairwise comparisons of metabolically healthy and metabolically abnormal participants with body mass index categories

From: Obesity phenotypes in urban and rural Cameroonians: a cross-sectional study

Characteristics Normal-weight Overweight Obese P trend across BMI categories P interaction
Metabolic status Healthy Abnormal p Healthy Abnormal p Healthy Abnormal p Overall Healthy Abnormal B*M M*S B*M*s
Prevalence, n (%) 968 (60.0) 22 (1.4)   406 (25.2) 26 (1.6)   163 (10.1) 27 (1.7)   <0.001 - - <0.001   
Men 426 (54.3) 8 (36.4) 0.073 161 (39.7) 17 (65.4) 0.009 39 (23.9) 10 (37.0) 0.116 <0.001 <0.001 0.054 0.002 0.541 0.244
Age (years) 40.9 (12.9) 54.2 (10.8) <0.001 39.4 (9.1) 43.9 (10.2) 0.016 41.7 (9.3) 46.1 (9.4) 0.024 0.922 0.641 0.010 0.014 0.650 0.004
Systolic blood pressure 114 (16) 146 (33) <0.001 118 (18) 141 (17) <0.001 122 (17) 143 (23) <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 0.643 0.082 0.421 0.049
Diastolic blood pressure 72 (11) 83 (15) <0.001 77 (13) 93 (17) <0.001 80 (12) 94 (17) <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 0.032 0.477 0.004 0.060
Body mass index 21.7 (2.0) 21.5 (2.3) 0.729 27.0 (1.3) 27.2 (1.3) 0.525 33.0 (3.1) 34.3 (4.8) 0.066 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 0.044 <0.001 0.021
Waist circumference 78 (7) 81 (6) 0.049 86 (7) 90 (6) 0.009 95 (9) 100 (9) 0.004 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 0.513 <0.001 <0.001
Waist-hip-ratio 0.86 (0.12) 0.89 (0.04) 0.166 0.83 (0.09) 0.87 (0.05) 0.039 0.83 (0.10) 0.86 (0.09) 0.200 <0.001 <0.001 0.051 0.934 0.006 0.004
Fasting blood glucose 4.0 (0.6) 7.6 (8.3) <0.001 4.2 (0.8) 6.3 (4.9) <0.001 4.1 (0.6) 5.7 (4.6) <0.001 0.008 0.008 0.304 <0.001 0.003 <0.001
2h glucose 4.9 (1.1) 12.4 (11.1) <0.001 4.9 (1.0) 9.6 (6.7) <0.001 5.0 (1.0) 7.9 (2.8) <0.001 0.006 0.134 0.048 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
Triglycerides 0.51 (0.27) 0.55 (0.18) 0.408 0.54 (0.32) 1.06 (1.04) <0.001 0.58 (0.23) 0.72 (0.25) 0.004 <0.001 0.001 0.430 <0.001 0.002 <0.001
Total cholesterol 2.9 (0.8) 2.9 (0.9) 0.885 3.5 (0.9) 3.3 (0.8) 0.428 3.8 (0.9) 3.9 (0.7) 0.501 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 0.568 0.407 0.109
Total energy 3857 (1579) 3704 (1449) 0.652 3574 (1408) 3380 (1029) 0.492 3435 (1396) 3438 (1185) 0.993 <0.001 <0.001 0.473 0.895 0.431 0.505
Fasting insulin 2.9 [1.8-4.6] 2.9 [2.1-11.9] 0.915 4.8 [3.3-6.7] 7.2 [6.0-13.9] <0.001 .0 [4.0-11.4] 15.2 [9.6-18.0] <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 0.161 0.057 0.439
Fasting c-peptide 0.24 [0.17-0.34] 0.29 [0.22-0.68] 0.320 0.32 [0.22-0.44] 0.44 [0.32-0.62 0.001 0.37 [0.27-0.48] 0.71 [0.56-0.92] <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 0.001 0.012 0.027 0.194
HOMA_IR 0.52 [0.32-0.83] 1.22 [0.32-3.32] 0.024 0.88 [0.59-1.30] 2.28 [1.28-2.71] <0.001 1.11 [0.75-1.62] 3.12 [2.48-3.90] <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 0.003 0.118 0.027 0.222
Education (secondary or more) 497 (53.8) 5 (27.8) 0.025 301 (75.1) 21 (80.8) 0.349 128 (80.0) 22 (84.6) 0.403 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 0.090 0.262 0.423
Low socio-economic status 723 (74.9) 19 (86.4) 0.164 208 (51.4) 7 (26.9) 0.013 77 (47.2) 11 (40.7) 0.339 <0.001 <0.001 0.003 0.063 0.869 <0.001
Heavy drinker 141 (14.7) 7 (31.8) 0.036 40 (9.9) 2 (7.7) 0.525 11 (6.7) 3 (11.1) 0.318 <0.001 0.001 0.062 0.354 0.805 0.142
Smoking    0.556    0.632    0.036 0.520 0.197 0.314 0.200 0.279 0.439
Never 816 (84.6) 17 (77.3)   337 (83.2) 23 (88.5)   142 (87.1) 18 (66.7)        
Ex-smoker 40 (4.1) 2 (9.1)   35 (8.6) 1 (3.8)   10 (6.1) 3 (11.1)        
Current smokers 109 (11.3) 3 (13.6)   33 (8.1) 2 (7.7)   11 (6.7) 6 (22.2)        
Strenuous physical activity 475 (49.1) 21 (54.5) 0.385 168 (41.4) 9 (34.6) 0.321 65 (39.9) 11 (40.7) 0.546 0.002 0.003 0.367 0.697 0.827 0.678
Any Diabetes 19 (2.0) 13 (68.4) <0.001 4 (1.0) 13 (50.0) <0.001 0 15 (55.6) <0.001 0.007 0.032 0.445 0.996 0.041 0.020
Any hypertension 34 (3.5) 10 (45.5) <0.001 36 (8.9) 11 (42.3) <0.001 26 (16.0) 11 (40.7) 0.005 <0.001 <0..001 0.744 0.015 0.378 0.036
  1. Values are count (percentages, %), mean (standard deviation, SD) or median [25th – 75th percentiles]. B*M, interaction term of body mass index categories and metabolic status; M*S, interaction term of metabolic status and setting (rural vs. urban); B*M*S, 3-ways interaction term of body mass index categories, metabolic status and setting. Units of measurements and other conventions are as per Table 1.