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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of the subjects by glucose tolerance and MS status

From: Metabolic syndrome as an indicator of high cardiovascular risk in patients with diabetes: Analyses based on Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008

  NFG IFG DM
  MS (-) n = 3,071 MS (+) n = 321 p MS (-) n = 413 MS (+) n = 399 p MS (-) n = 34 MS (+) n = 76 p
Age (yrs) 42.1 ± 14.6 50.5 ± 15.5 <0.001 49.4 ± 14.4 50.9 ± 13.0 0.129 51.6 ± 12.7 50.0 ± 13.2 0.536
Sex (M/F, n) 1188/1883 159/162 <0.001 213/200 226/173 0.147 23/11 42/34 0.222
BMI (kg/m2) 22.6 ± 2.9 26.3 ± 3.1 <0.001 23.1 ± 2.9 25.9 ± 3.2 <0.001 23.5 ± 3.3 26.1 ± 3.7 0.001
Smoking (n,%)          
 No smoker 2353 (76.6) 241 (75.1) 0.535 316 (76.5) 270 (67.7) 0.005 24 (70.6) 50 (65.8) 0.620
 Current smoker 718 (23.4) 80 (24.9)   97 (23.5) 129 (32.3)   10 (29.4) 26 (34.2)  
Alcohol (n,%)          
 No drinker 1,292 (42.1) 158 (49.2) 0.014 161 (39.0) 153 (38.3) 0.852 13 (38.2) 29 (38.2) 0.994
 Regular drinker 1,779 (57.9) 163 (50.8)   252 (61.0) 246 (61.7)   21 (61.8) 47(61.8)  
Locationa (n,%)          
 Urban area 2,007 (65.4) 189 (58.9) 0.021 263 (63.7) 254 (63.7) 0.995 22 (64.7) 45 (59.2) 0.585
 Rural area 1,064 (34.6) 132 (41.1)   150 (36.3) 145 (36.3)   12 (35.3) 31 (40.8)  
Household incomeb (n,%)          
 1st quartile (lowest) 425 (13.8) 78 (24.3) <0.001 69 (16.7) 64 (16.0) 0.672 9 (26.5) 18 (23.7) 0.522
 2nd quartile 773 (25.2) 77 (24.0)   117 (28.3) 100 (25.1)   7 (20.6) 21 (27.6)  
 3rd quartile 900 (29.3) 82 (25.5)   117 (28.3) 125 (31.3)   6 (17.6) 19 (25.0)  
 4th quartile (highest) 973 (31.7) 84 (26.2)   110 (26.6) 110 (27.6)   12 (35.3) 18 (23.7)  
Education (n,%)          
 Elementary school or lower 499 (16.2) 105 (32.7) <0.001 102 (24.7) 127 (31.8) 0.109 13 (38.2) 25 (32.9) 0.686
 Middle school 281 (9.2) 38 (11.8)   50 (12.1) 52 (13.0)   1 (2.9) 6 (7.9)  
 High school 1,216 (39.6) 102 (31.8)   163 (39.5) 136 (34.1)   9 (26.5) 24 (31.6)  
 College or higher 1,075 (35.0) 76 (23.7)   98 (23.7) 84 (21.1)   11 (32.4) 21 (27.6)  
Occupationc (n,%)          
 Group 1 429 (14.0) 40 (12.5) 0.214 42 (10.2) 44 (11.0) 0.783 3 (8.8) 11 (14.5) 0.577
 Group 2 269 (8.8) 25 (7.8)   29 (7.0) 29 (7.3)   2 (5.9) 5 (6.6)  
 Group 3 398 (13.0) 57 (17.8)   52 (12.6) 52 (13.0)   6 (17.6) 14 (18.4)  
 Group 4 266 (8.7) 21 (6.5)   43 (10.4) 50 (12.5)   6 (17.6) 9 (11.8)  
 Group 5 295 (9.6) 36 (11.2)   62 (15.0) 68 (17.0)   8 (23.5) 11 (14.5)  
 Group 6 259 (8.4) 27 (8.4)   53 (12.8) 42 (10.5)   4 (11.8) 5 (6.6)  
 Group 7 1,155 (37.6) 115 (35.8)   132 (32.0) 114 (28.6)   5 (14.7) 21 (27.6)  
Physical activityd (n,%)          
 None 1,270(41.4) 153 (47.7) 0.148 172 (41.6) 166 (41.6) 0.098 12 (35.3) 31 (40.8) 0.771
 Mild 959 (31.2) 92 (28.7)   117 (28.3) 105 (26.3)   11 (32.4) 19 (25.0)  
 Moderate 297 (9.7) 30 (9.3)   37 (9.0) 50 (12.5)   6 (17.6) 11 (14.5)  
 Vigorous 545 (17.7) 46 (14.3)   87 (21.1) 78 (19.5)   5 (14.7) 15 (19.7)  
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 180.9 ± 32.8 202.8 ± 33.9 <0.001 193.7 ± 33.6 201.2 ± 35.8 0.002 206.8 ± 43.1 204.1 ± 35.2 0.732
Triglycerides (mg/dL) 103.9 ± 77.6 251.3 ± 192.9 <0.001 105.7 ± 62.0 217.8 ± 156.2 <0.001 114.1 ± 64.3 256.5 ± 177.5 <0.001
HDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 50.2 ± 10.6 38.9 ± 5.8 <0.001 51.8 ± 10.0 41.4 ± 8.6 <0.001 51.8 ± 10.0 40.8 ± 7.6 <0.001
LDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 110.0 ± 29.9 113.6 ± 44.2 0.145 120.7 ± 31.3 116.2 ± 40.3 0.080 132.2 ± 34.4 112.1 ± 38.5 0.010
Non-HDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 130.7 ± 32.6 163.9 ± 33.0 <0.001 141.8 ± 32.6 159.8 ± 34.4 <0.001 155.0 ± 40.7 163.4 ± 34.4 0.269
Non-HDL/HDL ratio 2.7 ± 1.0 4.3 ± 1.0 <0.001 2.8 ± 0.8 4.0 ± 1.1 <0.001 3.1 ± 0.9 4.1 ± 1.1 <0.001
BUN (mg/dL) 13.7 ± 3.9 14.4 ± 3.9 0.003 15.2 ± 4.6 14.8 ± 3.8 0.143 16.3 ± 4.2 14.9 ± 4.2 0.092
Creatinine (mg/dL) 0.89 ± 0.18 0.95 ± 0.21 <0.001 0.92 ± 0.19 0.93 ± 0.20 0.394 0.89 ± 0.18 0.93 ± 0.24 0.440
AST (IU/L) 20.2 ± 13.1 23.4 ± 11.4 <0.001 22.8 ± 25.2 24.4 ± 11.2 0.234 26.2 ± 21.4 31.7 ± 34.3 0.394
ALT (IU/L) 18.6 ± 14.8 27.4 ± 21.4 <0.001 22.5 ± 43.3 28.7 ± 18.9 0.008 25.9 ± 16.9 34.1 ± 26.7 0.055
Fasting plasma glucose (mg/dL) 88.7 ± 6.0 91.6 ± 5.1 <0.001 105.9 ± 5.9 107.3 ± 6.5 0.001 160.8 ± 43.4 167.0 ± 45.2 0.505
Fasting serum insulin 8.50 ± 3.28 11.53 ± 7.42 <0.001 9.52 ± 5.13 11.99 ± 7.24 <0.001 11.80 ± 9.01 12.92 ± 8.52 0.533
HOMA2%B (%) 104.4 ± 28.7 118.6 ± 40.5 <0.001 78.2 ± 25.5 88.7 ± 31.7 <0.001 45.0 ± 26.9 47.8 ± 31.0 0.641
HOMA2%S (%) 102.7 ± 35.2 79.2 ± 28.7 <0.001 91.9 ± 34.2 77.0 ± 32.7 <0.001 84.2 ± 43.6 68.9 ± 34.0 0.076
  1. by independent t-test or chi-square test, mean ± S.D. or n (%).
  2. aThe 16 residential areas of the KNHANES were classified into two groups: urban areas, including metropolitan cities such as Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Incheon, Gwangju, Daejeon, and Ulsan, as well as metropolitan areas such as Gyeonggi province; rural areas, comprising Gangwon, Chungbuk, Chungnam, Jeonnam, Jeonbuk, Gyeongbuk, Gyeongnam, and Jeju provinces. bHousehold income was assigned to a category according to the following quartiles: 1st quartile (<bottom 25%), 2nd quartile (25-49%), 3rd quartile (50-75%) and 4th quartile (>top 25%). cOccupation group referred to the KSCO-6 classification. Group 1 indicates managers, professionals, technicians and associate professionals; group 2, clerical support workers; group 3, service and sales workers; group 4, skilled agricultural, forestry and fishery workers; group 5, craft and related trades workers, plant and machine operators, and assemblers; group 6, elementary occupations; group 7, housewife, student, and unemployed. dPhysical activity of the subjects was categorized according to their participation in recreational physical activity during the week prior to the survey: none, no or minimal activity; mild, >30 minutes of walking more than 5 days per week; moderate, >30 minutes of physical activity in which the subject was tired or breathing slightly hard compared to normal more than 5 days per week; vigorous, >20 min of vigorous physical activity in which the subject was exhausted or breathing hard compared to normal more than 3 days per week. MS indicates Metabolic syndrome; NFG, normal fasting glucose; IFG, impaired fasting glucose; DM, diabetes mellitus; BMI, body mass index; HDL, high density lipoprotein; LDL, low density lipoprotein; BUN, blood urea nitrogen; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; ALT, alanine aminotransferase; FPG, fasting plasma glucose; HOMA2%B, updated homeostasis model assessment for β-cell insulin secretion; HOMA2%S, updated homeostasis model assessment for insulin sensitivity.