Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 1 Population characteristics grouped according to smoking status

From: Cigarette smoking worsens systemic inflammation in persons with metabolic syndrome

Variable All participants (N = 5503) Non-Smokers (±SD) (N = 5,005) Smokers (±SD) (N = 498) p- value
Mean age (years) 43.48 ± 9.53 43.45 ± 9.48 43.76 ± 9.98 0.453
Male sex (%) 78.79 78.69 79.83 0.526
Mean waist circumference (cm) 91.59 ± 12.02 91.51 ± 12.02 92.40 ± 12.04 0.089
BMI (Kg/ m 2 ) 26.32 ± 3.99 26.30 ± 4.00 26.58 ± 3.72 0.100
Metabolic syndrome (%) 20.09 19.54 25.91 <0.001
Mean Uric acid (mg/ dL) 5.80 ± 1.40 5.80 ± 1.40 5.90 ± 1.38 0.171
Mean HDL-c (mg/ dL) 48.27 ± 13.06 48.48 ± 13.09 46.20 ± 12.58 <0.001
Mean triglyceride (mg/ dL) 136.65 ± 86.69 133.87 ± 81.48 164.90 ± 122.51 <0.001
Mean LDL-c (mg/ dL) 130.74 ± 33.25 130.65 ± 33.09 131.82 ± 34.83 0.423
Mean total cholesterol (mg/ dL) 205.94 ± 37.12 205.60 ± 36.81 209.69 ± 39.92 0.012
On statins (%) 8.65 8.49 10.26 0.150
With hepatic steatosis (%) 36.18 35.57 42.38 0.001
Mean fasting glucose (%) 89.30 ± 10.26 89.27 ± 10.34 89.49 ± 10.63 0.624
Mean SBP (mmHg) ±  SD 118.8 ± 12.7 118.7 ± 12.8 119.8 ± 12.5 0.065
Mean DBP (mmHg) ±  SD 76.9 ± 8.1 76.9 ± 8.1 77.3 ± 8.1 0.295
Hypertension (%) 21.24 12.61 13.22 0.394
On anti- hypertensive medications (%) 12.27 12.24 12.7 0.749
Median hs-CRP (IQR) (mg/L) 1.2 (0.6-2.40) 1.20 (0.60-2.40) 1.40 (0.70-3.00) <0.001
% Elevated hs- CRP (>3.0 mg/L) 19.24 18.60 26.10 <0.001
  1. SD: standard deviation; BMI: body mass index; HDL-c: high density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-c: low density lipoprotein cholesterol; and hs-CRP: high sensitivity C-reactive protein.