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Table 1 Acanthosis Nigricans (AN): prevalence, and age-, sex- and ethnicity-adjusted associations with demographic and clinical characteristics

From: Acanthosis nigricans in type 2 diabetes: prevalence, correlates and potential as a simple clinical screening tool - a cross-sectional study in the Caribbean

Characteristic Subgroup Overall frequency of characteristic Prevalence of AN in subgroup Age*-, sex- & ethnicity-adjusted  
   N (%) N (%) OR (95% CI) p value
Age (years) 25 - 39 28 (9.0) 21 (75.0) 5.84 (2.11, 16.18)  
  40 - 49 42 (13.5) 30 (71.4) 4.87 (2.04, 11.60)  
  50 - 59 94 (30.2) 56 (59.6) 2.87 (1.44, 5.72)  
  60 - 69 91 (29.3) 38 (41.8) 1.40 (0.70, 2.79)  
  ≥70 56 (18.0) 19 (33.9) 1   <0.001
  All [mean(SD)] [58.1 (12.6)]      
Sex Males 138 (44.4) 63 (45.7) 1   
  Females 173 (55.6) 101 (58.4) 1.67 (1.06, 2.62) 0.026
Ethnicity East Indian 190 (61.1) 115 (60.5) 1   
  African 76 (24.4) 31 (40.8) 0.45 (0.26, 0.77)  
  Mixed 45 (14.5) 18 (40.0) 0.43 (0.22, 0.84) 0.003
Body Mass Index Underweight 6 (2.2) 0 (0.0)    
(kg/m2)§, ¶ Normal 106 (38.5) 32 (30.2) 1   
  Overweight 94 (34.2) 58 (61.7) 3.98 (2.10, 7.55)  
  Obese 69 (25.1) 53 (76.8) 8.31 (3.84, 18.00) <0.001
  All [mean(SD)] 27.3 (6.0)      
Waist Circumference Normal 148 (50.5) 54 (36.5)    
(cm)§, ** Central obesity 145 (49.5) 99 (68.3) 4.72 (2.65, 8.43) <0.001
  All [mean(SD)] 96.7 (14.2)      
Hypertension No 104 (33.4) 49 (47.1) 1   
  Yes 207 (66.6) 115 (55.6) 2.19 (1.27, 3.79) 0.004
Hypercholesterolemia No 121 (38.9) 56 (46.3) 1   
  Yes 190 (61.1) 108 (56.8) 1.72 (1.02, 2.90) 0.040
Family history of T2DM§ No 54 (17.4) 22 (40.7) 1   
  Yes 256 (82.6) 141 (55.1) 1.3 (0.68, 2.48) 0.420
CVA or MI No 233 (74.9) 122 (52.4) 1   
  Yes 78 (25.1) 42 (53.8) 1.26 (0.72, 2.22) 0.413
Diabetes Treatment Oral 192 (61.7) 101 (52.6)    
  Oral & Insulin 28 (9.0) 11 (39.3) 0.63 (0.26, 1.54)  
  Insulin 91 (29.3) 52 (57.1) 1.14 (0.67, 1.96) 0.467
RBG (mg/dL)§ All [med(IQR)] [145 (84)]    1.00 (0.998, 1.004) 0.584
Duration of T2DM (yrs)§ All [med(IQR)] [10 (16)]    1.00 (0.98, 1.03) 0.847
Overall   311 (100) 164 (52.7)    
  1. Abbreviations: AN Acanthosis Nigricans, OR Odds Ratio, CI Confidence Interval, SD Standard Deviation, BMI Body Mass Index, T2DM Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, CVA Cerebrovascular accident, MI Myocardial Infarction, RBG Random Blood Glucose, med median, IQR Inter-quartile range. *age adjusted for as a continuous variable; Odds Ratios for variables age, sex and ethnicity are univariable analyses; p value for age-, sex- and ethnicity-adjusted association with AN from likelihood ratio test; §36, 18, 1, 14, 1 missing observations for BMI, waist circumference, family history of T2DM, RBS and duration of T2DM respectively. No missing observations for other variables. BMI (kg/m2): Underweight: <18.50; Normal: 18.50-24.99; Overweight: 25.00-29.99; Obese ≥30.00 [16]. **Central Obesity: waist circumference >102 cm in men and >88 cm in women [17].