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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of study subjects

From: Serum retinol-binding protein 4 levels are elevated but do not contribute to insulin resistance in newly diagnosed Chinese hypertensive patients

  NC (n = 64) HP (n = 127) HPO (n = 140) p-value
Age (yr) 46.9 ± 7.6 48.2 ± 8.6 47.7 ± 8.8 0.602*
Sex (M/F) 97/43 84/43 44/20 0.852#
BMI (kg/m2) 22.2 ± 1.3 22.5 ± 1.7 27.8 ± 1.9ab 0.000*
WC (cm) 81.1 ± 5.4 83.0 ± 6.7c 94.7 ± 6.0ab 0.000*
WHR 0.88 ± 0.05 0.90 ± 0.05c 0.94 ± 0.05ab 0.000*
SBP (mmHg) 116.5 ± 11.4 151.7 ± 11.7a 155.8 ± 14.7ad 0.000*
DBP (mmHg) 74.5 ± 7.7 97.0 ± 9.4a 98.8 ± 11.4a 0.000*
UA (µmol/l) 294.2 ± 67.7 323.0 ± 78.8c 384.8 ± 91.4ab 0.000*
TG (mmol/l) 1.39 ± 0.65 1.93 ± 1.07a 2.43 ± 1.27ab 0.000*
TC (mmol/l) 5.31 ± 0.95 5.38 ± 0.92 5.40 ± 0.97 0.658*
LDL-C (mmol/l) 2.53 ± 0.60 2.70 ± 0.58 2.72 ± 0.63 0.176*
HDL-C (mmol/l) 1.60 ± 0.28 1.53 ± 0.33 1.42 ± 0.33ab 0.001*
FBG (mmol/l) 5.45 ± 0.42 5.42 ± 0.57 5.64 ± 0.56bc 0.003*
FINS (pmol/l) 8.4 ± 3.90 10.7 ± 3.57a 14.6 ± 5.40ab 0.000*
HOMA-IR 2.06 ± 1.06 2.60 ± 1.00a 3.66 ± 1.40ab 0.000*
HOMA-β 87.4 ± 32.7 119.7 ± 48.8a 149.5 ± 83.9a 0.000*
Smoking (%) 32.8% 37.0% 33.6% 0.788#
Drinking (%) 26.6% 34.7% 51.4%ab 0.001#
  1. Data represent means ± SD or frequency (percentage).
  2. TG, FINS and HOMA-IR were log transformed before analysis.
  3. *Analysis of variance; # chi-squared test.
  4. ap < 0.01 compared with NC.
  5. bp < 0.01 compared with HP.
  6. cp < 0.05 compared with NC.
  7. dp < 0.05 compared with HP.
  8. NC, normal control subject; HP, hypertension with obesity; HPO, HP with obesity; BMI, body mass index; WC, Waist circumference; WHR, waist-to-hip ratio; SBP, systolic blood pressure; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; WHR, waist hip ratio; UA, uric acid; TG, triglyceride; TC, total cholesterol; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; FBG, fasting blood glucose; FINS, fasting plasma insulin; HOMA-IR, HOMA-insulin resistance index; HOMA-β, HOMA β cell function index.