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Table 1 Characteristics of the study subjects

From: Prevalence and clinical characteristics of lower limb atherosclerotic lesions in newly diagnosed patients with ketosis-onset diabetes: a cross-sectional study

Variables Control subjects (n = 62) Type 1 diabetes (n = 53) Ketosis-onset diabetes (n = 208) Non-ketotic type 2 diabetes (n = 215) p values *p values
Male (%) 43 (69.4%) 31 (58.5%) 153 (73.6%) 122 (56.7%) 0.002 0.030
Age (years) 47 ± 11 49 ± 18 49 ± 15 56 ± 14 <0.001 <0.001
Smoking (n, %) 38 (61.3%) 17 (32.1%) 84 (40.4%) 65 (30.2%) <0.001 0.001
Alcohol (n, %) 40 (64.5%) 14 (26.4%) 37 (17.8%) 36 (16.7%) <0.001 <0.001
Hypertension (%) 25 (40.3%) 11 (20.8%) 81 (38.9%) 98 (45.6%) 0.011 0.035
CCEs (%) 0 (0.0%) 2 (3.8%) 10 (4.8%) 31 (14.4%) 0.002 0.023
LLDs (%) 15 (24.2%) 10 (18.9%) 63 (30.3%) 70 (32.6%) 0.641 0.712
AHDs (%) 19 (30.6%) 8 (15.1%) 68 (32.7%) 95 (44.2%) 0.012 0.029
Aspirin (%) 8 (12.9%) 18 (34.0%) 66 (31.7%) 74 (34.4%) 0.009 0.013
BMI (kg/m2) 24.14 ± 3.67 22.34 ± 4.35 25.05 ± 3.54 25.16 ± 3.59 <0.001 <0.001
WHR 0.92 ± 0.07 0.89 ± 0.07 0.91 + 0.06 0.91 + 0.06 0.019 0.475
**Weight category      <0.001 <0.001
Underweight 3 (4.4%) 8 (15.1%) 3 (1.4%) 2 (0.9%) —— ——
Overweight 20 (32.3%) 6 (11.3%) 48 (23.1%) 49 (22.8%) —— ——
Obesity 22 (35.5%) 11 (20.8%) 97 (46.6%) 109 (50.7%) —— ——
SBP (mmHg) 124 ± 16 125 ± 17 127 ± 15 130 ± 17 0.042 0.146
DBP (mmHg) 78 ± 12 79 ± 10 81 ± 11 81 ± 9 0.101 0.023
*TG (mmol/l) 1.18 (0.88-1.92) 1.21 (0.84-1.55) 1.44 (1.00-2.19) 1.49 (1.08-2.21) 0.001 0.019
TC (mmol/l) 4.84 ± 1.02 4.83 ± 1.09 5.03 ± 1.22 4.82 ± 1.22 0.323 0.695
HDL-C (mmol/l) 1.28 ± 0.35 1.13 ± 0.26 1.05 ± 0.27 1.11 ± 0.25 <0.001 <0.001
LDL-C (mmol/l) 2.71 ± 0.88 3.24 ± 0.97 3.40 ± 1.03 3.12 ± 0.97 <0.001 0.075
*Cr (μmol/l) 71 (56–82) 59 (48–79) 68 (58–80) 67 (54–79) 0.036 0.442
*UAE (mg/24 h) —— 9.9 (7.1-18.1) 10.3 (6.5-23.8) 8.9 (6.4-24.8) 0.823 0.917
*eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2) 103 (93–116) 109 (89–136) 112 (92–134) 98 (82–118) 0.432 0.588
*FPG (mmol/l) 4.96 (4.67-5.24) 7.99 (6.02-11.44) 9.74 (7.63-12.45) 7.53 (6.39-9.67) <0.001 <0.001
*2 h PPG (mmol/l) 5.84 (5.04-6.58) 14.66 (10.49-19.61) 16.66 (12.94-20.79) 13.14 (10.39-16.66) <0.001 <0.001
*FCP (ng/mL) 2.05 (1.6-3.03) 0.6 (0.3-0.84) 1.23 (0.74-1.92) 2.02 (1.36-2.93) <0.001 0.030
*2 h C-P (ng/mL) 7.99 (6.56-9.92) 0.92 (0.62-1.77) 2.31 (1.55-3.66) 4.65 (3.12-6.35) <0.001 0.004
HA1C (%) 5.3 ± 0.34 12.39 ± 2.36 11.83 ± 2.05 9.81 ± 2.58 <0.001 <0.001
  1. Values are presented as mean ± SD, median with interquartile range, or percentages. *Non-normal distribution of continuous variables. **Weight was divided into underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2), overweight (23 to 24.9 kg/m2), and obesity (BMI > 25 kg/m2) based on Asia-Pacific criteria.
  2. P value: The p-values were not adjusted for age and sex for the trend.
  3. *P value: The *p value were adjusted by age and sex for the trend.