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Table 1 Clinical and laboratory profile of subjects with type 1 diabetes, stratified by median total fiber intake

From: Fiber intake and inflammation in type 1 diabetes

  < 20 g/d ≥ 20 g/d P
n 54 52  
Age (years) 39.1 ± 11.6 40.9 ± 10.5 0.426†
Caucasian (%) 92.6 78.8 0.117‡
Male (%) 35.2 71.2 <0.001‡
Diabetes duration (years) 18.2 ± 9.5 17.8 ± 8.1 0.378†
Current smoking (%) 13.0 3.8 0.092‡
Frequency of exercise: level 1* (%) 61.1 34.6 0.028‡
Current alcohol intake (%) 44.4 42.3 0.824‡
BMI (kg/m2) 24.3 ± 3.6 24.5 ± 3.4 0.549†
Waist circumference (cm)    
  Female 78.9 ± 9.2 81.0 ± 8.6 0.448†
  Male 84.7 ± 8.4 86.0 ± 9.6 0.607†
Insulin (UI/kg) 0.8 ± 0.3 0.6 ± 0.2 0.012†
Office systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 125.1 ± 15.0 124.6 ± 17.6 0.867†
Office diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 75.4 ± 11.7 74.3 ± 9.6 0.610†
Hypertension (%) 46.3 32.7 0.152‡
Presence of nephropathy (%) 16.7 11.5 0.449‡
Presence of diabetic retinopathy (%) 44.4 32.7 0.214‡
Fasting plasma glucose (mg/dl) 197.7 ± 132.0 200.2 ± 109.7 0.915†
HbA1c test (%) 9.1 ± 2.1 9.0 ± 1.9 0.752†
Total cholesterol (mg/dl) 190.4 ± 32.5 185.1 ± 36.7 0.434†
HDL cholesterol (mg/dl)    
  Female 66.1 ± 14.9 69.1 ± 15.5 0.542†
  Male 50.3 ± 10.2 53.4 ± 13.7 0.354†
LDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 112.0 ± 26.3 111.7 ± 38.6 0.959†
Triglycerides (mg/dl) 82.0 (59.8-114.2) 79.5 (57.8-114.8) 0.799†
hs-CRP (mg/L) 1.9 (1.0-4.4) 0.7 (0.4-2.4) 0.002†
Fibrinogen (mg/dl) 361.0 (311.5-448.0) 349.0 (271.0-410.0) 0.062†
UAEr (mg/24-h) 7.9 (0.0-21.9) 6.0 (0.0-12.0) 0.604†
Serum creatinine (mg/dl) 0.9 ± 0.4 0.9 ± 0.3 0.721†
eGDR (mg. kg– 1. min– 1) 7.76 ± 2.04 7.58 ± 2.59 0.700†
  1. Data expressed as means ± SD, median (IQR), or n (%). *Level 1 = sedentary.
  2. hs-CRP, high-sensitivity C-reative protein; UAE, urinary albumin excretion rate; eGDR equation glucose disposal rate. † Student’s t test; ‡ chi-square test.