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Table 1 Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of the Analytic Sample

From: The association of body mass index with the risk of type 2 diabetes: a case–control study nested in an electronic health records system in the United States

  Cases Controls P value
(With T2D) N = 12,179 (Without diabetes) N = 25,177
BMI (mean ± SD, kg/m2) 35.4 ± 8.5 29.4 ± 6.3 <0.01
BMI category (%)    <0.01
 18.5–24.9 kg/m2 7.4 24.1  
 25.0–29.9 kg/m2 20.5 36.1  
 30.0–34.9 kg/m2 26.3 23.3  
 35.0–39.9 kg/m2 20.6 10.0  
 40+ kg/m2 25.3 6.5  
Age (mean ± SD) 55 ± 15.9 56 ± 18.2 <0.01
Age group (%)    <0.01
 18.5–24.9 25.0 27.6  
 25.0–29.9 45.2 34.2  
 30.0–34.9 17.5 20.8  
 35.0–39.9 10.3 13.7  
 40+ 2.0 3.7  
Male (%) 42.9 44.6 <0.01
Race (%)    <0.01
 White 97.1 97.5  
 Black 1.8 1.3  
 Other/unknown 1.1 1.2  
Index year (%)    <0.01
 2005 8.8 10.0  
 2006 13.0 10.9  
 2007 15.3 12.2  
 2008 15.5 14.1  
 2009 18.9 16.2  
 2010 16.4 18.8  
 2011 12.0 17.8  
Smoking status (%)    <0.01
 Never smoke 49.0 48.0  
 Former smoker 29.8 22.6  
 Current smoker 17.8 15.4  
 Other/unknown 3.4 14.0  
Employment status (%)    <0.01
 Full Time 37.1 32.4  
 Not employed 22.2 15.5  
 Other/unknown 40.8 52.1  
Payer status (%)    <0.01
 Commercial 78.9 72.4  
 Medicare 12.8 14.1  
 Medicaid 4.6 3.1  
 Other/unknown 3.6 10.4  
Covered by Geisinger Health Plan (%) 49.7 43.8 <0.01
Any cardiac comorbidities (%) 85.3 63.1 <0.01
Hyperinflammatory state (%) 6.3 2.1 <0.01
Depression (%) 8.2 4.1 <0.01
Psychiatric drugs (%) 14.7 7.7 <0.01
Antidepressants/anxiolytics (%) 36.5 22.4 <0.01
Anti-obesity drugs (%) 0.4 0.1 <0.01
Beta blockers (%) 32.3 21.4 <0.01
Antihyperlipidemia drugs (%) 36.7 23.1 <0.01
Antihypertensives (%) 35.2 21.1 <0.01
Any outpatient encounters (%) 95.8 88.3 <0.01
Any inpatient encounters (%) 16.6 7.9 <0.01
Any emergency department encounters (%) 14.3 8.8 <0.01
Total encounter costs ($,mean ± SD) 6,324 ± 17,253 2,640 ± 7,606 <0.01
  1. Data source: Geisinger Health System electronic health records, January 2004–October 2011.
  2. Characteristics were measured at index date or during 1 year before index date.
  3. Any cardiac comorbidities: lipid abnormalities, coronary heart disease, acute myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, and hypertension, were defined by both ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes and clinical biomarkers.
  4. Hyperinflammatory state: defined by clinical biomarkers of C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate.
  5. Psychiatric medication use: anticonvulsants or antipsychotic medication.
  6. Total encounter costs: in 2011 dollars.
  7. P value based on t-test for continuous variables and chi-squared test for categorical variables.