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Table 2 Laboratory measurements

From: Synergistic anti-inflammatory effect: simvastatin and pioglitazone reduce inflammatory markers of plasma and epicardial adipose tissue of coronary patients with metabolic syndrome

  Valvar (n = 20) P* value CAD/MS group
Control (n = 17) Simvastatin (n = 20) Pioglitazone (n = 18) Pioglitazone + Simvastatin (n = 18) P** value
TG (mg/dL) 103.1 ± 40.48 0.002 162.88 ± 55.89 152 ± 68.64 167.89 ± 61.29 110.39 ± 22.1 0.011
LDL-c (mg/dL) 103.5 ± 29.68 0.381 123.76 ± 19.13 92.45 ± 33.57 142 ± 31.15 89.06 ± 25.62 <0.001
HDL-c (mg/dL) 44.1 ± 13.88 <0.001 34.35 ± 3.9 40.25 ± 7.5 41.39 ± 8.36 41.89 ± 6.33 0.006
Glucose (mg/dL) 82.95 ± 11.77 <0.001 101.18 ± 12.34 93.2 ± 17.11 120.44 ± 23.99* 144.44 ± 31.89* <0.001
HbA1c (%) 5.63 ± 0.41 0.003 5.78 ± 0.49 5.59 ± 0.57 6.72 ± 1.55 6.41 ± 1.16 0.004
Urea (mg/dL) 17 ± 4.11 0.3 25 ± 7.5 21 ± 3.3 31 ± 2.22 30 ± 2.24 0.011
Creatinine (mg/dL) 0.9 ± 0.2 0.42 1.1 ± 0.8 1.0 ± 0.42 1.2 ± 0.9 1,25 ± 0.7 0.01
hsCRP (mg/L) 3.89 ± 1.49 0.466 7.42 ± 1.45 1.93 ± 1.59 2.97 ± 1.21 1.88 ± 0.65 <0.001
IL-6 (pg/mL) 3.51 ± 0.95 0.811 5.3 ± 1.06 3.29 ± 1.15 3.15 ± 1.15 2.68 ± 0.69 <0.001
TNF-α (pg/mL) 14.71 ± 4.06 0.317 16.58 ± 2.4 18.28 ± 10.91 7.92 ± 1.03 8.65 ± 2.1 <0.001
Leptin (pg/mL) 3519.75 ± 1997.54 <0.001 17043.69 ± 2065.78 4836.25 ± 1310.68 42899.54 ± 9011.58 13979.94 ± 1622.5 <0.001
Resistin (ng/mL) 4.34 ± 1.09 <0.001 12.1 ± 1.38 6.41 ± 0.97 5.41 ± 1.32 7.41 ± 0.99 <0.001
Adiponectin (mg/mL) 15280 ± 4389.45 <0.001 1480.59 ± 426.02 4601.85 ± 1044.07 6099.38 ± 1227.84 7427.43 ± 1229.81 <0.001
MCP-1 (pg/mL) 73 ± 6.23 <0.001 341.93 ± 66.16 66.48 ± 11.2 381.55 ± 69.28 325.98 ± 62.07 <0.001
ADMA (μmol/L) 0.47 ± 0.13 0.595 0,53 ± 0.14 0.47 ± 0.12 0.44 ± 0.33 0.34 ± 0.11 0.05
MMP-9 (ng/mL) 553.35 ± 157.38 0.146 577.08 ± 147.01 672.65 ± 340.37 216.54 ± 32.6 362.76 ± 103.57 <0.001
  1. Values are means ± SD. TG = triglyceride; LDL = low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; HDL = high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; HbA1c = hemoglobin A1c. In the Pioglitazone only and Simvastatin + pioglitazone groups, the baseline values of glucose were higher than final values. hsCRP = C-reactive protein IL-6 = interleukin-6; TNF-α = tumoral necrosis factor. P* value = Comparison between non-CAD group and CAD/MS group. P** value = Comparison between CAD/MS groups.