Immunohistochemical staining in the EAT: quantify area. (A) Average percentage area for pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the EAT (P < 0.005). TNF-α: tumoral necrosis factor alpha; IL-6: interleukin 6. Analysis of variance one-way ANOVA; Bonferroni post-hoc test. (B) Average percentage area for CD68+ macrophages, CD45 T- and CD20 B-lymphocytes in EAT according to treatment group. (p < 0.05) for comparisons between CAD/MS groups, except for the comparison between the percentage of T-lymphocytes of pioglitazone and control groups (p = 0.236), and the percentage of macrophages using monotherapy with pioglitazone and simvastatin treatments (p = 0.349). CD45 T and CD20 B cells formed inflammatory clusters close to the edge of and around vessels of the EAT sections in the simvastatin group, but the center of the fat fragment was free of inflammatory cells. CD68+: macrophages; CD45T: T lymphocytes; CD20B: B lymphocytes. Analysis of variance: one-way ANOVA; Bonferroni post-hoc test. See text for details.