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Table 1 Characteristics of study participants with normal liver fat content (IHL ≤ 5.5%) versus those with elevated liver fat (IHL > 5.5%)

From: Liver fat accumulation is associated with reduced hepatic insulin extraction and beta cell dysfunction in healthy older individuals

Variable IHL ≤5.5% IHL >5.5% p
  Mean ± SD Mean ± SD p
M:F 20:21 - 19:10 -  
Age (years) 71.5 2.6 71.0 2.2 0.48
Weight (Kg) 70.1 11.3 84.4 12.7 <0.001
BMI (kg m-2) 25.2 2.7 28.6 3.6 <0.001
Waist (cm) 91.1 10.2 104.6 9.4 <0.001
MRI VAT (cm2) 93.1 48.5 176.5 55.9 <0.001
Alcohol (units/week)* 2.0 (1.0,6.0) 2.0 (0,14.0) 0.88
ALT (iu/l)* 21.0 (17.0,27.0) 32.0 (24.0,36.0) <0.001
HbA1c (%) 5.6 0.3 5.7 0.3 0.20
HIE (%) 88.1 2.8 85.6 4.5 0.01
OGIS (ml min-1 m-2) 438.6 52.1 367.8 52.4 <0.001
IHL (%)* 1.8 (0.9,3.4) 14.6 (7.9,19.0) <0.001
SBP (mmHg) 135.4 18.0 139.2 17.0 0.38
DBP (mmHg) 74.2 8.8 76.0 10.2 0.44
Fasting Glucose (mmol/l) 4.9 0.4 5.2 0.5 0.028
2-hour Glucose (mmol/l) 6.5 1.7 8.2 1.8 <0.001
Fasting Insulin (pmol/l)* 47.0 (32.8,64.6) 77.3 (48.1,102.0) <0.001
Total Cholesterol (mmol/l) 5.8 1.1 5.3 1.2 0.12
HDL-Cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.6 0.4 1.3 0.3 0.007
LDL-Cholesterol (mmol/l) 3.7 0.9 3.3 1.0 0.039
Triglycerides (mmol/l)* 1.0 (0.7,1.3) 1.5 (1.0,2.4) <0.001
zMS -0.40 0.49 0.34 0.44 <0.001
Taking statin (%) 4 (9.8%)   10 (34.5%)   0.011
Taking ACEI/ARB (%) 7 (17.1%)   7 (24.1%)   0.47
Taking Betablocker (%) 5 (12.2%)   7 (24.1%)   0.19
Taking CCB (%) 4 (9.8%)   6 (20.7%)   0.20
Family History of DM (%) 10 (25%)   7 (25.9%)   0.93
Current or ex-smoker (%) 12 (29.3%)   12 (41.4%)   0.29
  1. Continuous variables are summarised as means ± standard deviations, with p-values from t-tests. Continuous variables asterisked (*) have skewed distributions, so are summarised are medians and interquartile ranges, with p-values from Wilcoxon rank sum tests. Binary variables are summarised as N and %, with p-values from chi-squared tests.
  2. ACEI – Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitor; ARB – Angiotensin Receptor Blocker; CCB – Calcium Channel Blocker; DBP – Diastolic Blood Pressure; DM – Diabetes Mellitus; HDL – High Density Lipoprotein; HIE – Hepatic Insulin Extraction; IHL – Intrahepatic Lipid; LDL – Low Density Lipoprotein; OGIS – oral glucose insulin sensitivity; SBP – Systolic Blood Pressure; zMS – Standardised Composite Metabolic Risk.